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zoom RSS はしか流行と親によるワクチン接種拒否/米国 麻疹

<<   作成日時 : 2008/08/23 00:43   >>

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画像 今年7ヶ月で1996年以降で最大のはしか流行となっており、子どもに予防接種することを断る両親の増加を当局は非難している。
 これらの両親の多くが、複数の研究で否定されたはずの、ワクチンが自閉症をおこすことを信じている。
 英国、スイス、イスラエル、およびイタリアで、はしかが流行、数千人が発症し、少なくとも2人の死者を出している。
 1月から7月までで、131例のはしかが15の州とコロンビア特別区からCDC疾病管理・予防センターに報告された。4人の幼児を含む15人が入院したが、死者は出ていない。ほとんどは、外国を旅行しているか、外国から訪問する人々が、他に病気を広げた。イリノイ州で、30人の集団発生があった。病気になった人々のほとんどは予防接種をしていなかったか、予防接種歴が不明だった。16人が1才以下で予防接種前であったが、残りの2/3の63人は本人または両親が哲学的宗教的信念のために予防接種をしていなかった。ワクチンが自閉症をおこすと主張する人がますます増加している。ワクチン義務の法律への哲学的免除を要求する両親の数は増加している。
 はしか予防接種プログラムが始まる10年前には、米国では毎年約400万人が感染し、48,000人が入院、1,000人が慢性後遺障害を残し、約500人が死亡していた。
 親の懸念に対応して、2001年以降、メーカーは乳幼児のワクチンから水銀を含んだ保存薬を完全に無くしているが、自閉症の発症は減少していない。
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親によるワクチン拒否で公衆衛生上の危険性
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200803/article_39.html
子どもの予防接種を受けさせない親を刑務所へ/米国
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200711/article_27.html

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Measles Cases Grow in Number, and Officials Blame Parents’ Fear of Autism
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/22/health/research/22measles.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
By GARDINER HARRIS
Published: August 21, 2008

More people had measles infections in the first seven months of this year than during any comparable period since 1996, and public health officials blamed growing numbers of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children.
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Many of these parents say they believe vaccines cause autism, even though multiple studies have found no reputable evidence to support such a claim. In Britain, Switzerland, Israel and Italy, measles outbreaks have soared, sickening thousands and causing at least two deaths.

From January through July, 131 measles cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 15 states and the District of Columbia. Fifteen people, including four infants, were hospitalized. There were no deaths. Nearly all the cases resulted when people traveling abroad or visiting from a foreign country spread the illness to others. In Illinois, 30 people were sickened in one outbreak.

Most of those who were sickened were unvaccinated or had an unknown vaccination status. Sixteen were younger than a year old, too young to have been vaccinated. But two-thirds of the rest ― or 63 people ― were unvaccinated because of their or their parents’ philosophical or religious beliefs.

Public health advocates have become alarmed in recent years over a growing number of people who contend that vaccines cause illnesses, particularly autism. The number of parents who claim a philosophical exemption to mandatory vaccine laws has grown.

Nonetheless, vaccination rates have remained relatively high in the United States. In 2006, 95 percent of school-age children received at least one shot of the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, according to the C.D.C. But such surveys are often years behind vaccination trends, and government officials say the growing number of measles outbreaks suggests that overall vaccination rates may be on the decline.

Because it is virulently contagious, measles is often the first vaccine-preventable disease to reappear when vaccination rates decline. In the decade before the measles vaccination program began, each year nearly 4 million people in the United States were infected, 48,000 were hospitalized, 1,000 were chronically disabled and nearly 500 died.

Autism and antivaccines advocates are unapologetic about the return of measles.

“Most parents I know will take measles over autism,” said J. B. Handley, co-founder of Generation Rescue, a parent-led organization that contends that autism is a treatable condition caused by vaccines.

It is an attitude that pediatricians say they are increasingly having to confront.

“All pediatricians are spending more time speaking with parents about the rationale for vaccines,” said Dr. Andrew D. Racine, director of the division of general pediatrics at the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore in the Bronx.

Responding to parents’ concerns, manufacturers in 2001 almost entirely removed a preservative containing mercury from all routinely administered childhood vaccines. The incidence of autism has shown no drop.
More Articles in Health ? A version of this article appeared in print on August 22, 2008, on page A16 of the New York edition.

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