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<<   作成日時 : 2008/12/25 00:37   >>

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 魚を食べる母親の食事が子どもに影響
画像 ハーバードの Dr. Emily Oken は、マサチューセッツの妊婦341人に食事についての調査と妊娠第2期の血中水銀濃度を調べた。そして生まれた子どもが3才になったときに思考や運動の試験をし認知機能を調べた。
 週に2人前以上の魚を食べた母親から生まれた子供は高得点だった。さらに、血中水銀濃度が低い母親から生まれた子どもは更に良い点数だった。週に2人前以内の魚の摂取をFDA/EPAは推奨している。
 血中水銀レベルが高い母親から生まれた子どもは低得点であり、魚を食べる量が少ないと更に悪かった。
 食べた魚の種類までは調査していない。
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妊婦はもっと魚を食べるべきか?
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200710/article_24.html
水銀による健康障害
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200801/article_45.html
マグロ寿司に高濃度の水銀/ニューヨーク
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200801/article_44.html
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Fish-eating moms' diet affects kids, study shows
December 22, 2008
http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-he-closerbox22-2008dec22,0,2583637.story

Since the current guidelines on fish consumption were issued, Dr. Emily Oken, a physician and assistant professor at Harvard Medical School, has led studies to examine the sum effect of eating fish.

One of those was published in May in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Researchers asked 341 pregnant women in Massachusetts about their diet and tested their blood mercury levels during the second trimester. Then, when their children were 3, they were tested in a range of thinking and movement tasks.

Children of mothers who ate more than two servings of fish per week had higher scores than kids of non-fish-eating moms, even when other influences of early childhood development, such as birth weight and breast-feeding duration, were factored out. No measurable benefit was seen in kids born to women who ate fewer than two servings of fish per week, which corresponds to the current FDA/EPA advice.

The improvements in kids were even more striking in kids of moms with lower mercury levels, suggesting that choosing low-mercury fish is key. Researchers did ask about broad categories of fish, but, Oken says, it's a big uncertainty in this kind of research. "We don't really know a lot of detail about the kind of fish that women are eating."

On the flip side, children of mothers with the highest mercury levels in their blood scored poorly, and if their moms ate less fish, the detriments were greater.

In short, Oken was able to demonstrate both the benefits of fish eating and the risks of mercury intake. When both fish and mercury are taken together, Oken's study suggests that the good may outweigh the bad, at least in the fish-eating habits of her subjects.

-- Jill U. Adams

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American Journal of Epidemiology 2008 167(10):1171-1181; doi:10.1093/aje/kwn034

Maternal Fish Intake during Pregnancy, Blood Mercury Levels, and Child Cognition at Age 3 Years in a US Cohort

Emily Oken1, Jenny S. Radesky1, Robert O. Wright2, David C. Bellinger3, Chitra J. Amarasiriwardena4, Ken P. Kleinman1, Howard Hu5 and Matthew W. Gillman1,6

1 Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, MA
2 Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston and Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
3 Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
4 Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
5 Department of Environmental Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
6 Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA

Correspondence to Dr. Emily Oken, Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, 133 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (e-mail: emily_oken@harvardpilgrim.org).

Received for publication September 20, 2007. Accepted for publication January 29, 2008.

The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999--2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): --2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were --4.5 (95% CI: --8.5, --0.4) for the PPVT and --4.6 (95% CI: --8.3, --0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of <2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake.

child development; fatty acids, omega-3; fishes; mercury; pregnancy

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; PPVT, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; SD, standard deviation; WRAVMA, Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities

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