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婚外子の出生率が急増
画像 米国で2007年に出生した子どもの4/10が未婚の母からであった。
 1970年以前にはほとんどの未婚の母は10代だった。しかし、最近では20代30代の未婚の母が急増して2002年には30-34才では34%となった。2007年には、20代の女性の子どもの60%が婚外子で、10代で23%、30代以降で17%である。婚外子の増加の多くは一緒に住んではいるが結婚していない両親であるが、同棲形態は安定していない。
 こうした形態がヒスパニックの女性では2002-2006年で20%増加した。2006年の政府出生統計によれば、ヒスパニック女性の11%、黒人7%、白人3%に婚外子ができた。
 婚外子の出生は先進国で増加している。アイスランドでは66%が婚外子で、スウェーデンでは55%である。日本は例外的で2%である。
 他の先進国では両親の関係は安定しており、子どもへの政府支援が十分ある。しかし米国での増加には問題がある。子どもの健康、教育に影響が大きい。
 不思議なことに1995-2002年では婚外子の出生率は安定し、10代と黒人女性ではむしろ低下した。しかし、2002年以降増加に転じた。1940年には婚外子は3.8%だった。2007年データでは、最高のコロンビア特別区で59%、ミシシッピ州で54%、最低のユタ州で20%、ニューヨークは41%である。
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米国が過去最高の出生数を記録 2007年
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200903/article_30.html
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Out-of-Wedlock Birthrates Are Soaring, U.S. Reports
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/13/health/13mothers.html
By GARDINER HARRIS
Published: May 13, 2009

WASHINGTON ― Unmarried mothers gave birth to 4 out of every 10 babies born in the United States in 2007, a share that is increasing rapidly both here and abroad, according to government figures released Wednesday.

Before 1970, most unmarried mothers were teenagers. But in recent years the birthrate among unmarried women in their 20s and 30s has soared ― rising 34 percent since 2002, for example, in women ages 30 to 34. In 2007, women in their 20s had 60 percent of all babies born out of wedlock, teenagers had 23 percent and women 30 and older had 17 percent.

Much of the increase in unmarried births has occurred among parents who are living together but are not married, cohabitation arrangements that tend to be less stable than marriages, studies show.

The pattern has been particularly pronounced among Hispanic women, climbing 20 percent from 2002 to 2006, the most recent year for which racial breakdowns are available. Eleven percent of unmarried Hispanic women had a baby in 2006, compared with 7 percent of unmarried black women and 3 percent of unmarried white women, according to government data drawn from birth certificates.

Titled “Changing Patterns of Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States,” the report was released by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Out-of-wedlock births are also rising in much of the industrialized world: in Iceland, 66 percent of children are born to unmarried mothers; in Sweden, the share is 55 percent. (In other societies, though, the phenomenon remains rare ― just 2 percent in Japan, for example.)

But experts say the increases in the United States are of greater concern because couples in many other countries tend to be more stable and government support for children is often higher.

“In Sweden, you see very little variation in the outcome of children based on marital status. Everybody does fairly well,” said Wendy Manning, a professor of sociology at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. “In the U.S., there’s much more disparity.”

Children born out of wedlock in the United States tend to have poorer health and educational outcomes than those born to married women, but that may be because unmarried mothers tend to share those problems.

Decades ago, pregnant women often married before giving birth. But the odds of separation and divorce in unions driven by pregnancy are relatively high. So when a woman gets pregnant, are children better off if their parents marry, cohabitate or do neither? That question is still unresolved, Dr. Manning said.

Some experts speculate that marriage or cohabitation cements financial and emotional bonds between children and fathers that survive divorce or separation, improving outcomes for children. But since familial instability is often damaging to children, they may be better off with mothers who never cohabitate or marry than with those who form unions that are later broken.

“There is no consensus on those questions,” Dr. Manning said.

In an enduring mystery, birthrates for unmarried women in the United States stabilized between 1995 and 2002 and declined among unmarried teenagers and black women. But after 2002, the overall birthrate among unmarried women resumed its steady climb. In 1940, just 3.8 percent of births were to unmarried women.

The District of Columbia and Mississippi had the highest rates of out-of-wedlock births in 2007: 59 percent and 54 percent, respectively. The lowest rate, 20 percent, was in Utah. In New York, the rate was 41 percent; in New Jersey, 34 percent; and in Connecticut, 35 percent. Sarah S. Brown, chief executive of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, a nonprofit advocacy group, said sex and pregnancy were handled far too cavalierly in the United States, where rates of unplanned pregnancies, births and abortions are far higher than those of other industrialized nations.

“These trends may meet the needs of young adults,” she said, “but it’s far from clear that it’s helpful for children.”

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Kids Born to Unwed Moms Hit Record High
Report Finds U.S. Unmarried Births Top 40 Percent, Up One-Fourth Since '02
By EMILY FRIEDMAN
May 13, 2009
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/WomensHealth/story?id=7575268&page=1

A record number of children worldwide are being born to unmarried mothers as traditional marriage arrangements are being abandoned at a faster pace, according to a report released today by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The rate of babies born to unwed mothers has doubled since 1980.

"The surprising thing is that we've had this really big upswing in births to unmarried mothers in such a short period of time," said Stephanie Ventura, the author of the report commissioned by the CDC's National Center of Health Statistics.

In the U.S., nearly 40 percent of births were to unmarried women in 2007, compared with about 34 percent in 2002, according to data first released in March but now being compared with that of other countries.

The report shows that teenagers accounted for only 23 percent of 2007's non-marital births, down from 50 percent in 1970, demonstrating that birth rates for unmarried women in their twenties and over have risen considerably over the period.

Worldwide, of the 14 developed countries studied, the highest unwed birth rates were among the Scandinavian nations.

In Iceland, for example, 66 percent of births were to unmarried women, as were 55 percent in Sweden, 54 percent in Norway and 46 percent in Denmark. The United States unwed rate of 40 percent fell in about the middle of this group of countries, about equal to that of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

Sociologists say that the rising rate of unwed mothers reflects a lackadaisical attitude toward the tradition of marriage in Europe and in the U.S. The report didn't look at cohabitation rates, so it's impossible to tell how many of these unwed mothers in 2007 were actually living with the fathers of their children.

"The Scandinavian countries have long had a tradition of living together outside of marriage," said Andrew Cherlin, a professor of public policy at Johns Hopkins University and the author of "The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family in America Today."

"In places like Sweden nearly all of the non-marital births occur to couples in long-term relationships that often last as long as if not longer than American marriages," said Cherlin.

"While in the U.S. marriage is still held up as an ideal, we are moving away from the institution of marriage as well," said Cherlin.

"For us in the U.S. it's important to be married, in Sweden it's important to have a stable relationship whether they're married or not," said Cheriln.
single parents
A report released today by the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention shows a worldwide spike in the number of children born to unmarried mothers.
(ABC News)

Unlike countries like the U.S. and those in Europe, Japan has one of the lowest rates of non-marital births, at just 2 percent.

A strong sense of tradition is responsible, according to Cherlin. "In Japan nearly all children are born to married couples," he said. "The marriage system is still very strong in Japan and it's still socially unacceptable to have a child outside of marriage."

Robert Emery, the director for the Center for Children Families and Law at the University of Virginia, said that couples are also less inclined to tie the knot overseas than they are in the U.S. because there are fewer benefits for doing so.

"Overseas you don't need marriage as much because of the availability of social programs," said Emery. "Tax and insurance benefits aren't contingent on being married like they are in the U.S."

Though a majority of mothers who give birth in the United States are married, that doesn't mean they stay that way. The most recent data estimates that between 40 and 50 percent of American marriages end in divorce.

Children Born To Unwed Mothers May Be At Greater Risk for Complications

But the CDC, as well as several sociologists, are concerned about what the statistics in the report could mean for the children born to unwed mothers.

"Surveys show that children born to two-parent families are generally better off," said the CDC's Ventura. "Health outcomes are just not as good for those born to unmarried women."

The report lists low birth weight, preterm birth, infant mortality and limited social and financial resources as hardships more likely to be faced by a child born to a single mother.

Popenoe, the co-director of the non-partisan National Marriage Project at Rutgers University, says that the rising rejection of marriage means that children will suffer the negative consequences.

"The big problem with a culture of no marriage and instead one of cohabitation is that people break up at a much higher rate than when they're married," said Popenoe.

"That means you have a more emotionally transient society, which is especially hard on any children," he said.

"No kid likes to go through changing parents in a household and so with that kind of culture you're going to have more problems like high school drop outs, teen pregnancies and juvenile delinquency," he said.

According to 2002 data, the most recent available, approximately 40 percent of all children born to unwed mothers were born to couples cohabitating, a statistic the CDC's Ventura says warrants a closer look.

"That is a good sign because cohabitation definitely suggests a stronger social connection," said Ventura. "But they're generally still not as stable as marriages and you still must look at the kids who don't have that support and are born to unwed mothers."

Popenoe said that the CDC report can be viewed as a barometer of the country's stance on the importance of marriage.

"In the U.S., cultural traditions are certainly evolving," said Popenoe.

"Many families who aren't married are just fine, but I think there is wisdom in tradition that young people don't always appreciate."

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