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<<   作成日時 : 2009/09/15 23:55   >>

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子どもの死亡率低下傾向が鈍化
 Unicefは、予防可能な病気による子供の死亡が最も大きいと言う。死亡率は減少してはいるが低下率は不充分である。新たなレポートによると、昨年、肺炎と下痢により5才未満の子どもが800万人以上死亡している。5才未満の子どもの死者の40%が、ナイジェリア、インド、コンゴ民主共和国の3国で起きている。マラウイとエリトリアは改善したが、南アフリカでは死亡率が上昇した。
 1990年から2015年の間に5才未満の子どもの死亡率を3分の2に減らすという国連の目標に達することに失敗しているとUnicefは言う。1990年には1250万人の5才未満の子どもが死亡していた。1990年に比べれば死亡数が1日あたり1万人減ったが、それでも年間880万人が5才未満で死亡していることは受け入れ不可能である。南アフリカでは1990年以来死亡率が増加しており、母親のHIVが原因である。
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Page last updated at 22:51 GMT, Thursday, 10 September 2009 23:51 UK
Child mortality drop 'too slow'
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8249786.stm

画像Child in drought-stricken Bihar, India, Aug 2009
Unicef says preventable diseases are the biggest killers of children

The UN children's agency says child mortality is decreasing, but the rate of decline is not enough.

A new report says more than eight million children under five died last year with pneumonia and diarrhoea the two leading causes of death.
Unicef says 40% of under-five deaths take place in just three countries - Nigeria, India and DR Congo.
The report singled out Malawi and Eritrea as success stories, but said in South Africa child mortality had risen.
Unicef says the world is failing to reach the UN's target of a two-thirds reduction in under-five child mortality between 1990 and 2015.
In 1990, 12.5 million children under the age of five died.
"Compared to 1990, 10,000 fewer children are dying every day," said Unicef Executive Director Ann Veneman in a statement.
"While progress is being made, it is unacceptable that each year 8.8 million children die before their fifth birthday."

'Improvement possible'
Unicef says the tools are there to significantly reduce child mortality.
They include bed nets to stop malaria, improved water and sanitation and increased vaccination programmes.
Those countries that use these tools - even some of the poorest nations - have seen big improvements in child survival rates, Unicef says.
But in some countries progress is at best slow and at worst non-existent.
In South Africa, under-five mortality has actually increased since 1990.
The reason, Unicef says, is the high rate of HIV and Aids among mothers.
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Number of deaths of children under five continues to drop, reports UNICEF
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=32002&Cr=child+mortality&Cr1=

10 September 2009 – The number of children dying before their fifth birthday has decreased steadily over the past few years and fell to under 9 million in 2008, thanks in part to greater use of health interventions such as vaccinations and insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) said today.

Newly released data compiled by demographers and health experts from UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank and the UN Population Division shows a 28 per cent decline in the under-five mortality rate, from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 65 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008.

The absolute number of child deaths in 2008 declined to an estimated 8.8 million from 12.5 million in 1990, the base line year for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the eight anti-poverty targets with a 2015 deadline that includes reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds by that time.

UNICEF Executive Director Ann M. Veneman noted that compared to 1990, some 10,000 fewer children are dying every day.

“While progress is being made, it is unacceptable that each year 8.8 million children die before their fifth birthday,” she added.

Public health experts attribute the continuing drop to greater use of health interventions such as immunizations, the use of insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and vitamin A supplementation.

UNICEF noted that progress has been seen in every part of the world, and even in some of the least-developed countries, such as Malawi, one of ten high under-five mortality countries that is now on track to meet the related MDG.

In addition, impressive gains have been made in countries that are not fully on track to meet that MDG, including in Niger, Mozambique and Ethiopia which have all reduced under-five mortality by more than 100 per 1,000 live births since 1990.

At the same time, UNICEF stated that while progress has been made in many countries, the global rate of improvement is still insufficient to reach the MDG, and Africa and Asia combined still account for 93 per cent of all under-five deaths that occur each year in the developing world.

“A handful of countries with large populations bear a disproportionate burden of under-five deaths, with 40 per cent of the world’s under-five deaths occurring in just three countries: India, Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of Congo,” said Ms. Veneman.

“Unless mortality in these countries can be significantly reduced, the MDG targets will not be met,” she cautioned, adding that this will require a strong sense of urgency with targeted resources for greater progress.

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