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<<   作成日時 : 2009/12/24 20:04   >>

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 ある種の先天奇形が母親が管理人janitorsや科学者である子どもに多く発症するという。 24の職業を持つ母親と45の先天的障害との関係を、8,977人の先天的障害と3,833人の健康対象とを分析し、母親と電話インタビューした。
 管理人は7つの先天障害:目や耳の欠陥、筋骨格系・消化器系の問題、口蓋裂の発生と関連している。以前の研究でも、二分脊椎や口蓋裂と関連していた。
 科学者の女性は5つの先天障害:特に筋骨格系異常と消化器系とともに、心臓異常のリスクがあった。電子機器オペレータも先天異常の子どもを産むリスクが高い。
 興味深いのは教師で、先天異常のリスクが低く、特に腹壁破裂・二分脊椎・心臓中隔欠損で低かった。医療労働者は3つの先天異常は低いが2つでは高かった。
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Mom's Job May Increase Risk of Birth Defects
Babies of Women Employed as Scientists, Janitors May Face Highest Risk
By KRISTINA FIORE
MedPage Today
Dec. 22, 2009
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/WellnessNews/moms-job-birth-defect-risk/story?id=9400864

画像The kids of custodians and chemists may be at greater risk for some birth defects than children of parents with other occupations, researchers say.
(Comstock Images/Getty Images)

In a survey of mothers of children with birth defects, those who were janitors or scientists were more likely to have children with certain conditions, Michele Herdt-Losavio of the New York State Department of Health and colleagues reported online in the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Herdt-Losavio said her team didn't assess what factors may account for this association but offered a possible explanation.

"What we can guess by looking at these job titles is that ... it's possible that they work with chemicals," she said. "It's not possible to say what those chemicals might be, or how much they might work with. But what we can do is point other [researchers] in the direction and give them some idea of where they might want to dig further and collect more data."

Herdt-Losavio said she and her colleagues are currently looking further into the "scientist" category -- which encompassed biological scientists, chemists, pharmacists, engineers, and geologists -- to determine which fields may be most at risk.

The team conducted the study because several previous efforts had found an association between a mother's occupation and a child's birth defects. Most, however, have grouped birth defects together, without assessing individual problems.

So they looked at 45 specific birth defects among 24 different maternal occupations. They analyzed 8,977 cases of birth defects and 3,833 healthy controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and conducted telephone interviews with mothers.

What they found was that women working as janitors had a significantly increased risk of giving birth to a child who had one or more of seven specific defects: ear and eye defects, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal problems, and oral clefts, among others, Herdt-Losavio said.

Janitorial occupations had previously been associated with neural tube defects, spina bifida, and oral clefts, the researchers said.

-----------------------------------------------------
Occup Environ Med 2010;67:58-66 doi:10.1136/oem.2009.048256

Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

1. M L Herdt-Losavio1,
2. S Lin1,
3. B R Chapman1,
4. M Hooiveld2,
5. A Olshan3,
6. X Liu1,
7. R D DePersis1,
8. J Zhu1,
9. C M Druschel1

+ Author Affiliations

1.
1
New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Troy, New York, USA
2.
2
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3.
3
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

1. Correspondence to Dr Michele L Herdt-Losavio, New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology, 547 River Street, Room 200, Troy, NY 12180, USA; mlh06@health.state.ny.us

* Accepted 6 August 2009

Abstract

Objectives: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes.

Methods: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated dates of delivery from 1 October 1997 through 31 December 2003 were included. A computer-assisted telephone interview with mothers was conducted. Occupational coding using the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification System and the 1997 North American Industry Classification System was completed for all jobs held by mothers. Jobs held from 1 month before pregnancy to the end of the third pregnancy month were considered exposures. Logistic regression models were run, adjusted for potential confounders. We also used a Bayesian approach to logistic regression.

Results: Approximately 72% of case mothers and 72% of control mothers in the NBDPS were employed. Several occupational groups were positively associated with one or more birth defects, including janitors/cleaners, scientists and electronic equipment operators. Using standard logistic regression, we found 42 (26 for Bayesian) significantly elevated risks of birth defects in offspring of working mothers. In addition, several other occupational groups were found to be negatively associated with one or more birth defects, including teachers and healthcare workers. Using standard logistic regression, we found 12 (11 for Bayesian) significantly reduced risks of birth defects among offspring of working women.

Conclusions: Results from these analyses can be used for hypothesis generating purposes and guiding future investigations of occupational exposures and birth defects.

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