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 近視の米国人が増加している。政府による全国調査では、12-54才の近視で矯正レンズを必要とする割合が、1970年代は25%だったのが1999-2004年には42%と増加した。これは世界的な傾向であるという。
 12-54才の1/3が矯正レンズを必要と仮定すると、年に30億ドルが必要となる。
 近視は教育レベルと相関し、近くの物を取り扱う職業に従事することが主要な原因であるという。
 黒人で特に増加が目立ち、1971-72年には13%だったのが、33.5%まで増加している。
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Nearsightedness Rising in U.S., Study Says
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/22/health/22visi.html

By RONI CARYN RABIN
Published: December 21, 2009

There may be good reason for the proliferation of eyeglass stores in recent years: more Americans are nearsighted.

The proportion of Americans ages 12 to 54 who need corrective lenses for distance sight has risen in recent decades, increasing to almost 42 percent in 1999-2004, up from 25 percent in the early 1970s, a national study has found.

While the prevalence of nearsightedness has increased around the world, this study is one of the first to document a significant increase over time in the percentage of Americans with the condition, said Susan Vitale, an epidemiologist at the National Eye Institute.

The analysis, based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, was published in the December issue of Archives of Ophthalmology.

“The nice thing about this is that it’s very treatable,” Dr. Vitale said. “There are glasses and contact lenses and, for some people, refractory surgery.”

She noted that the treatment was costly, estimated at $3 billion a year assuming over one-third of Americans ages 12 to 54 need corrective lenses.

Higher levels of education are often associated with nearsightedness, and people are more likely to have jobs that involve focusing on nearby objects, believed to be a leading cause of the condition.

The increase was particularly notable among black people, rising to 33.5 percent in the recent period, from 13 percent in 1971-72.

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Increased Prevalence of Myopia in the United States Between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004

Susan Vitale, PhD, MHS; Robert D. Sperduto, MD; Frederick L. Ferris III, MD

Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(12):1632-1639.

Objective To compare US population prevalence estimates for myopia in 1971-1972 and 1999-2004.

Methods The 1971-1972 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provided the earliest nationally representative estimates for US myopia prevalence; myopia was diagnosed by an algorithm using either lensometry, pinhole visual acuity, and presenting visual acuity (for presenting visual acuity ?20/40) or retinoscopy (for presenting visual acuity ?20/50). Using a similar method for diagnosing myopia, we examined data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to determine whether myopia prevalence had changed during the 30 years between the 2 surveys.

Results Using the 1971-1972 method, the estimated prevalence of myopia in persons aged 12 to 54 years was significantly higher in 1999-2004 than in 1971-1972 (41.6% vs 25.0%, respectively; P < .001). Prevalence estimates were higher in 1999-2004 than in 1971-1972 for black individuals (33.5% vs 13.0%, respectively; P < .001) and white individuals (43.0% vs 26.3%, respectively; P < .001) and for all levels of myopia severity (>--2.0 diopters [D]: 17.5% vs 13.4%, respectively [P < .001]; ?--2.0 to >--7.9 D: 22.4% vs 11.4%, respectively [P < .001]; ?--7.9 D: 1.6% vs 0.2%, respectively [P < .001]).

Conclusions When using similar methods for each period, the prevalence of myopia in the United States appears to be substantially higher in 1999-2004 than 30 years earlier. Identifying modifiable risk factors for myopia could lead to the development of cost-effective interventional strategies.

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近視の増加/米国・・医師の一分さん
近視の増加/米国 http://kurie.at.webry.info/200912/article_34.html ...続きを見る
龍涙
2009/12/28 14:44

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