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zoom RSS ツタンカーメンはマラリアで死亡

<<   作成日時 : 2010/02/17 19:36   >>

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 ツタンカーメンは、稀な骨疾患に罹患後、マラリアで死亡したとする説が発表された。
 19才のファラオのミイラから2年かけて血液とDNAを取り出して研究してきた。血液中にマラリア寄生虫の痕跡が見つかったという。1922年にハワードカーターが王家の谷でツタンカーメンの墓を発見して以来、なぜ若くして死んだかが謎であった。古代戦車から落下して死亡したとする説があるが、反対する学者もいる。
 早死にして子孫がいないので家系で病気がなかったかを調査すると、女性的な風貌をみせる王族がいるので、マルファン症候群の特徴であると考えた。
 しかしエジプトの有名な考古学者Zahi Hawass博士はこうした説を拒絶する。祖母と父親ミイラのDNAから否定された。しかし、凹足や側弯と共に下肢の骨疾患であるケーラー病U型の特徴を受け継いでいることが確認された。
 杖や側板が移動する時に使用されたことを説明できるという。直前ではないが死亡する前に骨折していることが重要だと研究者は言っており、骨折はうまく治癒していない。若い王は虚弱で感染しやすかった。全身の不調に加えてマラリアがとどめを刺したと考えられる。
 今までで最も古い証拠であるファラオの血液中にマラリア寄生虫の痕跡を見つけた。墓から発見された治療として使われた種・果実・葉はこの診断を支持するものである。
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モーツァルトの死因は溶連菌感染症
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200908/article_24.html
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Page last updated at 16:49 GMT, Tuesday, 16 February 2010
'Malaria and weak bones' may have killed Tutankhamun
By Michelle Roberts
Health reporter, BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8516425.stm

画像The Egyptian 'boy king' Tutankhamun may well have died of malaria after the disease ravaged a body crippled by a rare bone disorder, experts say.

The findings could lay to rest conspiracy theories of murder.

The scientists spent the last two years scrutinising the mummified remains of the 19-year old pharaoh to extract his blood and DNA.

This revealed traces of the malaria parasite in his blood, the Journal of the American Medical Association says.

Shrouded in mystery

Ever since Howard Carter's discovery of Tutankhamun's intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings in 1922, scholars have speculated over why the 19-year old 'boy king' died so young.

Some believe he was killed by a fall from his chariot. Others suspect foul play.

A sudden leg fracture possibly introduced by a fall might have resulted in a life-threatening condition when a malaria infection occurred
Dr Hawass

Because he died so young, and left no heirs, scholars have speculated that, instead, he may have suffered from a disease that ran in his family.

Artifacts have shown the royalty of that era as having a somewhat curvaceous and rather feminine appearance, which some say would be typical of inherited conditions like Marfan syndrome.

But Egypt's chief archaeologist Dr Zahi Hawass rejects these explanations.

He and his team have painstakingly picked over the remains of Tutankhamun and 10 other royal mummies from his family - two of which they have now confirmed using genetic fingerprinting to be the young king's grandmother and most probably his father.

They say there is no compelling evidence to suggest King Tut or indeed any of his royal ancestors had Marfan's - the voluptuous artefacts, they believe, are a red herring and merely reflect the fashion of the time.

But they did confirm that the king may have had some form of inherited disease, a rare bone disorder affecting the foot called Kohler disease II, as well as a club foot and a curvature of the spine.

Scientific 'proof'

Although this was not his ultimate downfall, it would explain why among his possessions there were sticks and staves that could have been used as walking canes, say the researchers.

Not long before his death, the king fractured his leg, and the scientists think this was important.

The bone did not heal properly and began to die. This would have left the young king frail and susceptible to infection.

What finished him off, they believe, was a bout of malaria on top of his general ill health.

His is not a beautifully preserved mummy. It's a charred wreck. Hawass and his team have been incredibly clever and lucky to do this
Dr Bob Connolly, who has studied King Tut's remains

The scientists found traces of the malaria parasite in the pharaoh's blood - the oldest mummified genetic proof for malaria in ancient populations that we have.

Dr Hawass and his team say: "A sudden leg fracture possibly introduced by a fall might have resulted in a life-threatening condition when a malaria infection occurred.

"Seeds, fruits and leaves found in the tomb, and possibly used as medical treatment, support this diagnosis."

Dr Bob Connolly, a senior lecturer in physical anthropology at Liverpool University, has examined Tutankhamun himself.

He said the researchers had been incredibly lucky to be able to extract the DNA for study.

"His is not a beautifully preserved mummy. It's a charred wreck. Hawass and his team have been incredibly clever and lucky to do this."

He said it was possible that the king died from malaria, but he personally doubted it.

"Just because he had the parasite in his blood does not necessarily mean he suffered from malaria or died from it. It may not have caused him any trouble."

"I still think he died from a fall from his chariot. His chest cavity was also caved in and he had broken ribs."

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King Tutankhamun, Modern Medical Science, and the Expanding Boundaries of Historical Inquiry

Howard Markel, MD, PhD

JAMA. 2010;303(7):667-668.

Tutankhamun, better known as King Tut, ruled ancient Egypt from 1333 to 1324 BC, during the 18th dynasty (circa 1550-1295 BC) of ancient Egypt's New Kingdom (circa 1550-1070 BC). His brief reign, youthful visage, and premature death, as well as the rediscovery of his remains and tomb in 1922, have fascinated Egyptologists and other historians alike for decades.

Over the years, many scholars have offered a wide variety of explanations for his early demise as well as the seemingly androgynous appearance of his face and gynecomastia portrayed in sculptures and other relics. These diagnoses have included Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, and Antley-Bixler syndrome or one of its variants.1-4

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