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zoom RSS 空港での全身スキャン導入は費用対効果に乏しい/欧州

<<   作成日時 : 2010/02/08 01:12   >>

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 空港での全身スキャン導入は費用対効果に乏しいと欧州諸国
 デトロイト便事件に関連する英国とオランダの2国は今月から空港でのスキャナー導入したが、欧州のエリート官僚は強行に反対している。健康被害の疑いを訴える運動家だけでなく、多くの欧州の飛行安全専門家はコスト・ベネフィットに納得していない。
 適切にボディチェックをすれば済むしコストもかからず、スペースをとらない。選択的に行わないと長蛇の列となる。
 米国では19空港で約40台が使用され、交通安全管理局TSAは9月にさらに2500万ドルで150台購入した。さらに300台導入する予定だという。
 しかしプライバシー問題グループは、スキャナ・イメージを保存・転送しないとして一般大衆を誤解させたことでTSAを告発した。2008年にTSAは保存・転送の能力を持たなければならないと指定している文書が明らかにされた。
 欧州では大きなハードルに直面している。乗客はボディーチェックを受けるオプションを持つとの主張がなされ、ボディスキャン強制を排除する法律の立案も考慮された。プライバシーに対する懸念が強く、一定の空港で整備されるのに留まるだろう。全体主義独裁国家という歴史的な背景を持つ欧州では米国よりデータ保護について厳しい検討がされ、イメージ操作者が被検本人に会うことなく、イメージが迅速に削除されることを保証するプロトコールを作成する必要がある。
 本当に爆弾を検出できるのだろうか? スキャンテクノロジー会社QinetiQで働いていたことのある保守党議員?は、Abdulmutallab の足にひもで縛られた爆発物を見付けられなかったであろうと警告した。Ben Wallace はアルカイダによって使われている現在の爆破装置を検出することはありそうにないと言う。
 昨年10月にサウジアラビアの王子を殺害しようとしたアルカイダ自爆テロのように、爆発物を体内に隠した人間が飛行機内に出現するかもしれない。
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空港での全身スキャナーによる放射線障害
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201001/article_8.html
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Why Europe Doesn't Want an Invasion of Body Scanners
In Europe, Body Scanners May Simply Not Be Cost-Effective
By BEN QUINN
LONDON, Feb. 6, 2010
http://abcnews.go.com/Travel/europe-body-scanners-airports/story?id=9756241

To borrow a phrase from counter-terrorist parlance, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab's alleged plot to bring down a Detroit-bound airliner on Christmas Day was a "game changer."
Why Europe doesn't want an invasion of body scanners

画像A Security officer poses for photographers in the body scanner at Manchester Airport, Manchester, north-west England on January 7, 2010. In Europe, body scanners may simply not be cost-effective, regardless of whether they represent a real health risk or the digital equivalent of a strip search. Collapse
(Andrew Yates/AFP/Getty Images)

As a reluctance to introduce body scanners at airports eases, two countries deploying them nationwide this month include Britain, reportedly a key setting for the Nigerian student's radicalization, and the Netherlands, where Mr. Abdulmutallab passed through undetected before boarding a flight to the United States.

But ardent opposition to them -- including in the ranks of Europe's bureaucratic elite -- may yet frustrate their international rollout. Beyond campaigners who worry about supposed health risks or view them as the digital equivalent of a strip search, many European aviation-security experts remain unconvinced of the cost benefits.

Frisking much less costly

Stay Up to Date on the Latest Travel Trends from ABC News on Twitter

"A thorough body frisk would do the same sort of thing, if it is done properly, and of course it costs a lot less," says Norman Shanks, a former head of security for the British Airports Authority, the United Kingdom's leading airport operator, who cautions that the technology is being viewed as a "panacea."

"Scanners also take up a lot of space. So, I hope that they will be used selectively, and restricted to a percentage of people. Otherwise, there will be long queues."

In the US, where around 40 machines are in use at 19 airports, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) spent $25 million buying another 150 in September. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano said on Jan. 7 that there would be an "acceleration" involving the introduction of a further 300.

But a privacy group accused the TSA of misleading the public with claims that scanners would not store or send their graphic images. The Electronic Privacy Information Center produced TSA documents from 2008, obtained under a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit, in which the administration specifies that the scanners must have the ability to store and send images. The TSA responded by saying that this was for test purposes and the machines would be delivered without those capabilities.

Plans in Eur?ope face more serious hurdles, not least the opposition of the European Com?mis?sion's incoming justice commissioner. Passengers "must have the option of undergoing a body search," says Viviane Reding, who is to take up her powerful portfolio later this month. She could draft a law ruling out mandatory body scans at airports, but has stopped short of saying she will.

Privacy concerns have meant only a tentative embrace of scanners elsewhere in Europe. In Germany, officials said scanners would be considered once these concerns are resolved. Only certain airports will initially be equipped in France, where the idea of deploying them was dropped in 2008.

Spain also has reservations. The current holder of the agenda-setting European Union presidency, it is calling for the adoption of a common EU position to avoid different types of screening.

"The history of Europe is littered with totalitarian dictatorships, so in some ways there is greater sensitivity than in the US toward privacy, and weighing up data protection against national security," says Chris Pounder, a British data-protection expert. He believes that scanners can be made to comply with European laws by having protocols that ensure, for example, that operators viewing images cannot see the individual who has been scanned, and that images are deleted quickly.

Other takes on the privacy debate have also cropped up across the continent. The Rabbinical Center of Europe warned that scanners would violate the rights of religious Jewish women whose modesty would be compromised, while British children's rights campaigners said they could breach laws banning the creation of indecent images of children.

In a bid to address such worries, the Netherlands is testing software in scanners that displays a stylized body image -- much like a stick figure -- and highlights areas where objects are concealed.

Would machines have detected bomb?

A British Conservative MP who used to work for QinetiQ, a scanning technology firm, warned that scanners would probably not have detected the explosives reportedly strapped to Abdulmutallab's leg. "In all the testing that we undertook, it was unlikely that it would have picked up the current explosive devices being used by Al Qaeda," Ben Wallace said of passive millimeter wave scanners, attractive because of their low amounts of radiation.
Mr. Shanks, the former head of security at the British Airports Authority, also wonders about the future: "One wonders what would happen next time there was an incident with an individual who had concealed explosives internally."

One response is using transmission X-rays, which can see through the body. They are currently used only at some Russian airports to counter the threat from Chechen female suicide bombers.

Despite conforming to widely accepted safety standards, the X-rays emit higher levels of radiation. For now, the prospect of their introduction on a global scale appears distant, but experts have been quietly fretting about the next challenge to aviation since an Al Qaeda bomber with explosives inside his body tried to kill a Saudi prince last October.

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