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zoom RSS インスリンより優れた糖尿病治療効果のあるホルモン/レプチン

<<   作成日時 : 2010/03/02 21:04   >>

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 体重減少に関連するホルモン・レプチンがインスリンよりもマウスのT型糖尿病をコントロールするようだという。人でも同様な効果が得られるなら従来の治療法が一変する可能性がある。
 T型糖尿病は若年性糖尿病とも呼ばれ、1922年のインスリン発見以来、主な治療法として行われてきた。しかし、問題は注入されたインスリンが体内で健康上の問題、特に心臓疾患のリスクを起こすことにある。
 レプチンは体重減少に関係するホルモンであり、今までの研究では、多いタイプのU型糖尿病に対して有効であるとされてきた。
 新たな研究で、T型糖尿病マウスに対して、レプチン、インスリン、両者を投与したところ、レプチン単独または両者併用の方が結果が良かった。血糖の変動が少なく、コレステロールが低下し、体脂肪がつかなかった。血糖制御機構に対してレプチンが良い働きをしている。
 人に対する臨床試験が必要とされる。
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Hormone Outperforms Insulin in Diabetic Mice
Someday, leptin could free people with type 1 disease from daily injections, expert predicts
By Randy DotingaHealthDay Reporter
http://health.msn.com/health-topics/cholesterol/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100254945

画像Someday, leptin could free people with type 1 disease from daily injections, expert predicts.

MONDAY, March 1 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers are reporting that treatment with a hormone linked to weight loss seems to control type 1 diabetes in mice better than insulin does, raising the prospect of a landmark new treatment for some human diabetics.

There's no guarantee that the hormone, known as leptin, will work against type 1 diabetes. But if leptin has similar effects on humans, it could free type 1 diabetics from their daily regimen of multiple insulin injections and tight blood-sugar monitoring, said the study's co-author, Dr. Roger Unger, chairman of diabetes research at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.

In addition, Unger said, leptin could help diabetics do a better job of controlling their blood sugar. "They would have a longer life as well as a less burdensome one," he said. "That's the best possible scenario that we could hope for."

People with type 1 diabetes -- also known as juvenile diabetes -- are reliant on insulin, which has been the main treatment since the early part of last century. "Insulin was discovered in 1922 and prevented death, and all of us have grown up having been taught that that was a miraculous discovery, which is correct," Unger said.

But the problem is that injected insulin causes health problems of its own in the body. Type 1 diabetics have little leeway for error in how they treat their condition, and they are at high risk for heart disease as a result of insulin, Unger said.

Leptin is a hormone that's been linked to weight loss, and previous research has suggested that it could help people with type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease.

In the new study, researchers gave leptin, insulin or both to mice with type 1 diabetes. The researchers found that the mice treated with leptin alone or in conjunction with insulin did better: Their blood sugar didn't fluctuate as much, their cholesterol levels went down and they didn't form as much body fat.

Unger said that leptin seems to do a better job than insulin at targeting the body's blood-sugar control mechanisms.

The findings were published in this week's online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Another diabetes expert, Satya P. Kalra, a distinguished professor emeritus at the University of Florida Department of Neuroscience, said that his own research has shown that leptin works as a treatment for both kinds of diabetes. In fact, leptin is "the only durable and efficient new therapeutic strategy for diabetes" and related diseases, said Kalra, who's familiar with the findings of the new study.

What's next? Leptin must be tested on humans, Unger said. "We have every reason to believe that it will work in man," leading to better health for diabetics, he said. "But there's no point in getting overly excited until a human trial has shown that it works, and that will take a couple of years."

Unger said he could not estimate the cost of leptin therapy. It could be given through injections or via an intravenous drip, he said.

More information

Learn more about type 1 diabetes from the American Diabetes Association.
SOURCES: Roger Unger, M.D., chairman, diabetes research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas; Satya P. Kalra, Ph.D., distinguished professor emeritus, University of Florida Department of Neuroscience, Gainesville, Fla.; March 1-5, 2010, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, online

Copyright @2010 HealthDay. All Rights Reserved.

---------------------------------------------------
Leptin therapy in insulin-deficient type I diabetes

1. May-yun Wanga,
2. Lijun Chena,
3. Gregory O. Clarka,
4. Young Leea,
5. Robert D. Stevensb,
6. Olga R. Ilkayevab,
7. Brett R. Wennerb,
8. James R. Bainb,
9. Maureen J. Charronc,
10. Christopher B. Newgardb, and
11. Roger H. Ungera,d,1

+ Author Affiliations

1.
aTouchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390;
2.
bSarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center and Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710;
3.
cDepartment of Biochemistry and the Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461; and
4.
dDepartment of General Medical Research, VA North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX 75216

1.

Edited by Jeffrey M. Friedman, Howard Hughes Medical Institute/Rockefeller University, New York, NY, and approved January 12, 2010 (received for review October 7, 2009)

Abstract

In nonobese diabetic mice with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes, leptin therapy alone or combined with low-dose insulin reverses the catabolic state through suppression of hyperglucagonemia. Additionally, it mimics the anabolic actions of insulin monotherapy and normalizes hemoglobin A1c with far less glucose variability. We show that leptin therapy, like insulin, normalizes the levels of a wide array of hepatic intermediary metabolites in multiple chemical classes, including acylcarnitines, organic acids (tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), amino acids, and acyl CoAs. In contrast to insulin monotherapy, however, leptin lowers both lipogenic and cholesterologenic transcription factors and enzymes and reduces plasma and tissue lipids. The results imply that leptin administration may have multiple short- and long-term advantages over insulin monotherapy for type 1 diabetes.


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