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<<   作成日時 : 2010/04/20 20:41   >>

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画像 肺炎を起こすRSウイルスにより全世界で毎年20万人近くの子どもが死亡している。感染した子どもが約340万人入院しており、子どもの肺感染症の最も多い原因となっている。RSウイルス感染は2歳以下の子どもで普通は軽い風邪として発症する。未熟児や先天性心疾患を持つ子どもでは重症化する。
 5歳前の子どものRSウイルスによる死亡数の推計は初めてであり、国際チームによれば、約3380万人の子どもが毎年感染し、関連死亡の99%が開発途上国であるとわかった。
 発症数の確認はワクチン開発に欠かせない。いかにこのウイルスも問題が大きいかがわかる。
 イングランドとウェールズで毎年冬の数ヶ月間で2万人の乳幼児が入院している。
 10代の子どもでの長期の肺障害にも関連するという。
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Page last updated at 09:10 GMT, Friday, 16 April 2010 10:10 UK
Vaccine hope for children's lung virus
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/edinburgh_and_east/8623153.stm

Baby in cot
The virus affects most children before the age of two

A virus that causes wheezing and pneumonia claims the lives of up to 200,000 children worldwide each year, a study has found.

University of Edinburgh scientists found that about 3.4 million children were hospitalised after contracting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

RSV is the single largest cause of lung infection in children.

The scientists hope the research will help contribute to the development of a vaccine against the infection.

The study, which has been published in The Lancet, confirmed that RSV - which infects most children before the age of two - usually causes mild cold-like symptoms, but can lead to serious illness in babies who are born prematurely or who have congenital heart disease.

This is the first time we have gathered information on such a global scale and is the best estimate we have for the number of children dying each year from this preventable illness
Dr Harish Nair
University of Edinburgh

It is the first time that the numbers of children dying globally from RSV before the age of five have been quantified.

The international team analysed unpublished data from developing countries as well as all the published medical research on RSV infection.

They found that about 33.8 million children become infected with RSV each year and that 99% of RSV-related deaths occur in developing countries.

The team hopes that by identifying the numbers affected by the virus, it can contribute to the development of a vaccine against the infection.

Dr Harish Nair, of the University of Edinburgh's department of population health studies, said: "Our greatest hope of fighting this virus is to develop a vaccine, but before we can implement an immunisation programme, we need to understand exactly how big a problem RSV poses.

"This is the first time we have gathered information on such a global scale and is the best estimate we have for the number of children dying each year from this preventable illness."

Professor Warren Lenney, spokesman for the British Lung Foundation, the only charity helping people with all lung diseases, said: "Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (RSV) is a respiratory virus which is not well known, however it is the most common reason for tiny babies to be admitted to hospital within the first year of life - across England and Wales RSV causes 20,000 babies to be admitted to hospital each year during the winter months."

He welcomed the research as indicating the size of the problem on a global scale.

"RSV not only causes respiratory problems in early life but can lead to other long-term chest problems well into teenage years," the professor added.

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The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 16 April 2010
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60206-1Cite or Link Using DOI

Global burden of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Harish Nair DNB a b, D James Nokes PhD c d, Bradford D Gessner MD e, Mukesh Dherani PhD f, Prof Shabir A Madhi MD g, Rosalyn J Singleton MD h i, Katherine L O'Brien MD j, Anna Roca PhD k l, Prof Peter F Wright MD m, Nigel Bruce PhD f, Aruna Chandran MD j, Evropi Theodoratou PhD a, Agustinus Sutanto MD n, Endang R Sedyaningsih MD o, Mwanajuma Ngama HND c, Patrick K Munywoki MSc c, Prof Cissy Kartasasmita PhD p, Prof Eric AF Simo~es MD q, Prof Igor Rudan MD a r, Martin W Weber PhD s, Prof Harry Campbell MD a Corresponding AuthorEmail Address

Summary
Background
The global burden of disease attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to RSV in children younger than 5 years in 2005.
Methods
We estimated the incidence of RSV-associated ALRI in children younger than 5 years, stratified by age, using data from a systematic review of studies published between January, 1995, and June, 2009, and ten unpublished population-based studies. We estimated possible boundaries for RSV-associated ALRI mortality by combining case fatality ratios with incidence estimates from hospital-based reports from published and unpublished studies and identifying studies with population-based data for RSV seasonality and monthly ALRI mortality.
Findings
In 2005, an estimated 33?8 (95% CI 19?3―46?2) million new episodes of RSV-associated ALRI occurred worldwide in children younger than 5 years (22% of ALRI episodes), with at least 3?4 (2?8―4?3) million episodes representing severe RSV-associated ALRI necessitating hospital admission. We estimated that 66 000―199 000 children younger than 5 years died from RSV-associated ALRI in 2005, with 99% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Incidence and mortality can vary substantially from year to year in any one setting.
Interpretation
Globally, RSV is the most common cause of childhood ALRI and a major cause of admission to hospital as a result of severe ALRI. Mortality data suggest that RSV is an important cause of death in childhood from ALRI, after pneumococcal pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The development of novel prevention and treatment strategies should be accelerated as a priority.
Funding
WHO; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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