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zoom RSS トランス脂肪に代えて健康な脂肪を使用

<<   作成日時 : 2010/05/30 23:37   >>

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画像 有害なトランス脂肪を取り除き、他の有害な脂肪を追加するのではないかという心配は根拠がないとの研究結果。
 ハーバードの研究チームはスーパーマーケットとレストランの83製品を分析したが、ほとんど問題を見つけなかった。80以上が、より健康によい脂肪を使用しており、飽和脂肪に取り替えたというわけではなかった。
 業界やレストランは健全化に向かっている。パーム油やココナッツ油を使用している場合もあるようだが、これらも飽和脂肪なので、オリーブ油やクルミ油などの健康的な脂肪の使用を推奨する。
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財政危機下で健康改善に取り組む知事/米国医療事情 ニューヨーク州
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200901/article_17.html
カリフォルニアでトランス脂肪酸使用禁止へ
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200807/article_43.html
マグドナルド 米国とカナダでトランス脂肪使用中止
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200805/article_50.html
トランス脂肪酸 依然として大量使用/米NY
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200708/article_7.html
トランス脂肪酸、世界で追放広がる
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200705/article_18.html
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Healthier Fats Replacing Trans Fats, Study Finds
The food industry is 'trying to do the right thing,' researcher says
By Steven ReinbergHealthDay Reporter
The food industry is 'trying to do the right thing,' researcher says
http://health.msn.com/nutrition/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100259634

WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Fears that removing harmful trans fats from foods would open the door for manufacturers and restaurants to add other harmful fats to foods seem to be unfounded, a new study finds.

A team from Harvard School of Public Health analyzed 83 reformulated products from supermarkets and restaurants, and found little cause for alarm.

"We found that in over 80 brand name, major national products, the great majority took out the trans fat and did not just replace it with saturated fat, suggesting they are using healthier fats to replace the trans fat," said lead researcher Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, an assistant professor of epidemiology.

Trans fats -- created by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil to make it firmer -- are cheap to produce and long-lasting, making them ideal for fried foods. They also add flavor that consumers like, but are known to decrease HDL, or good, cholesterol, and increase LDL, or bad, cholesterol, which raises the risk for heart attack, stroke and diabetes, according to the American Heart Association.

The report, published in the May 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, found no increase in the use of saturated fats in reformulated foods sold in supermarkets and restaurants, Mozaffarian said.

Baked goods were the only exception. Mozaffarian said trans fat was replaced by saturated fat in some bakery items, but they were the minority of products studied. Saturated fats have been associated in research studies with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, diabetes and arterial inflammation.

The big up-front cost to industry is reformulating the product, Mozaffarian said. "When industry and restaurants go through that effort, they are recognizing that, 'We might as well make the food healthier,' and in the great majority of cases they are able to do so," he said. "So, I think that there is greater attention to health than ever before, and industry and restaurants are trying to do the right thing."

Samantha Heller, a dietitian, nutritionist and exercise physiologist based in Fairfield, Conn., said reformulations that reduce trans fat in foods are good news for consumers.

However, consumers still need to read labels because many foods on the market are still undergoing reformulation, she said, and many others still contain trans fats, also known as partially hydrogenated oils.

"Of concern is the continued and possibly increased use of tropical oils, such as palm, palm kernel and coconut oils, as a replacement for trans fat," Heller said. For example, it is difficult to find a margarine free of trans fat and tropical oil that one can use for baking and cooking, she said.

Most people know they should reduce their consumption of saturated fats like butter and cheese, but may be unaware that tropical oils in many processed foods are also saturated, Heller said.

Heller suggests consuming healthy fats, such as olive and walnut oils, and unprocessed foods that don't contain tropical oils.

Dr. David L. Katz, director of the Prevention Research Center at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Conn., said removal of trans fat "from food is a well-justified public health priority."

This review is reassuring, he said. "In general, trans fat is coming out of food, and saturated fat is not going in. Even when it does, there is apt to be a net health benefit," he said. Some saturated fat is probably rather harmless, "but that's a subtlety that dietary guidelines are not yet addressing," Katz said.

Without intending to, this review raises an issue of importance to the field of public health nutrition, Katz added.

"We often focus on one nutrient at a time and risk improving one nutrient feature, while compromising others," Katz said. Until a reliable measure of overall nutritional quality is common practice for gauging the merits of reformulation, "reviews such as this will be required to verify that an apparent nutritional advance like trans fat removal is not offset by countervailing retreats," he said.

More information

For more information on trans fat, visit the American Heart Association.
SOURCES: Dariush Mozaffarian, M.D., Dr. P.H., assistant professor, epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston; David L. Katz, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.P.M., F.A.C.P., director, Prevention Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.; Samantha Heller, M.S., R.D., dietitian, nutritionist, exercise physiologist, Fairfield, Conn.; May 27, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine

Copyright @2010 HealthDay. All Rights Reserved.


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NEJM Volume 362:2037-2039 May 27, 2010 Number 21

Food Reformulations to Reduce Trans Fatty Acids


To the Editor: Consumption of trans fatty acids raises levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, lowers levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, induces an inflammatory response, and even at low levels of intake (e.g., 2 to 4% of total calories) significantly increases the risk of coronary events.1,2 Efforts to reformulate foods to reduce trans fatty acid content can have substantial effects on health and are relevant to public health policy. Public campaigns and policy measures are motivating food manufacturers and restaurants to replace the trans fatty acids in foods (present largely because of the use of partially hydrogenated oils) with alternative fats. Concerns exist that in reformulating the foods manufacturers may replace the trans fat with saturated fat, in which case the combined content of these fats in the foods could remain about the same or even increase, mitigating health benefits.3 A recent analysis showed that selected products free of trans fat contained substantial amounts of saturated fat, suggesting that reformulations to reduce trans fat might not be achieving net reductions in combined levels of trans fat and saturated fat.4 In this study, however, the investigators did not evaluate actual product reformulations but simply compared different products from different manufacturers at one point in time. To our knowledge, no large-scale assessments have been performed to determine the extent to which U.S. companies are increasing the saturated fat content of foods when they are being reformulated to reduce the trans fat content or whether there is a variation between supermarket foods (which are required to carry labels showing nutrient content) and restaurant foods (for which nutrient labels are not required).

We investigated changes in the levels of trans fat and saturated fat in major brand-name U.S. supermarket and restaurant foods that were reformulated to reduce trans fatty acid content from 1993 through 2006 (first evaluation) and 2008 through 2009 (second evaluation). Our assessment was based on information from consumer magazines, health newsletters, a nonprofit organization database, and food-composition databases at the Food and Drug Administration. We identified 83 reformulated products (58 supermarket foods and 25 restaurant foods) (Figure 1, and the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org). Trans fat content was reduced to less than 0.5 g per serving in 95% of the supermarket products analyzed and 80% of the restaurant products analyzed; mean absolute reductions were 1.8 g per serving (84 percentage points) and 3.3 g per serving (92 percentage points), respectively. After reformulation, 65% of the supermarket products and 90% of the restaurant products had levels of saturated fat that were lower, unchanged, or only slightly higher (<0.5 g per serving) than before reformulation. The average content of saturated fat in supermarket foods increased slightly owing to increases in one third of the products analyzed; the average content of saturated fat in restaurant foods actually decreased. Reductions in levels of trans fat nearly always exceeded any increase in levels of saturated fat; after reformulation, the overall content of both fats combined was reduced in 90% (52 of 58) of the supermarket products and 96% (24 of 25) of the restaurant products, with average total reductions of 1.2 g and 3.9 g per serving, respectively.

No exhaustive national database exists of product-specific changes in trans fat and saturated fat over time; this analysis represents a broad new assessment of U.S. reformulations. According to our analysis, major brand-name reformulations generally reduced the trans fat content substantially without making equivalent increases in saturated fat content. In fact, in most restaurant foods, levels of saturated fat were also reduced. In most restaurant and supermarket foods, there was a reduction in the total combined level of trans fat and saturated fat. Whereas any reformulation that removed partially hydrogenated oils would be expected to produce health benefits (even if these oils were replaced with animal fats or tropical oils), reformulations that increased levels of cis unsaturated fats over saturated fats would maximize health benefits.2 Our results indicate that there is room for improvement in some reformulation strategies, especially for some supermarket foods. Our findings do not support concerns that voluntary or mandatory reductions in trans fat from partially hydrogenated oils would lead to broad increases in the saturated fat content of U.S. foods.


Dariush Mozaffarian, M.D., Dr.P.H.
Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA
dmozaffa@hsph.harvard.edu


Michael F. Jacobson, Ph.D.
Julie S. Greenstein, M.H.S.
Center for Science in the Public Interest
Washington, DC


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