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zoom RSS アルコール最低価格制の導入を/英国

<<   作成日時 : 2010/06/03 23:51   >>

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 イングランドでのアルコールの最低価格導入が必要だと監視グループは言う。過剰飲酒の害を削減するようにとのNational Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)の推奨が出されている。成人の4人に1人は飲みすぎであり健康被害が出ているかまたは危険性が高い。しかし連立政府は最低価格導入を支持していない。
 2005年にアルコールにより約15,000人が死亡している。NHS国民健康保険に対しての年間コストは20億ポンド以上になり、1年に120万件の暴力事件に関連している可能性があるという。アルコールの広告を禁止して、より買いにくくするなどの多くの対策が必要である。
 NICEの公衆衛生部長Mike Kelly教授は、アルコール中毒problem drinkersに対して最も効果的な方法は最低価格導入でより入手しにくくすることであると言う。
 ウオッカのボトルは13ポンド以上とすべきであるが、スーパーで8ポンド以下で売られている。white ciderは7ポンド以上が良いが、約2ポンドで販売されている。
 医師と健康運動家からの強い支援をうけて、スコットランド政府は、すでに最低価格を導入しようとしている。ウェールズはまた最小価格を支持している。シェフィールド大のRobin Purshouseはスコットランド政府のためにアルコール価格についての研究をし、1単位あたり40ペンスにより年間約1,000人の死亡を減らし約40,000人の入院を減らし、約10,000件の暴力事件を減らすことになると試算した。アルコール消費と関連する因子は様々だが、もっとも大きな要因が価格にあることは広く認められている。しかし、イングランドの政策を決めるウェストミンスターでは原価以下での販売禁止を狙っている。
 飲料産業は、イングランドのアルコール問題が価格低下によるというのは言い過ぎであり、無責任なアルコール消費は教育と情報によりまず対応する必要があるという。
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英国医師会がアルコール宣伝の禁止と増税を推奨/英国医療事情
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200909/article_12.html
ロシアを悩ますアルコール禍 殺人者の8割は泥酔者
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200908/article_45.html
死亡の1/25はアルコール消費と関連している
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200906/article_42.html
口腔がんの著しい増加はアルコールが主な原因
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200908/article_13.html
胎児性アルコールスペクトラム障害とADHD注意欠陥多動症候群
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200907/article_30.html
飲酒運転の半数がアルコール依存症
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200707/article_40.html
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Watchdog backs a minimum price for alcohol
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/10207827.stm
Page last updated at 8:58 GMT, Wednesday, 2 June 2010 9:58 UK

The arguments for and against banning cheap alcohol

A health watchdog has added its voice to calls for a minimum price per unit of alcohol in England.

The recommendation from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is in guidance on reducing the harm from excess drinking.

NICE says about one in four adults is drinking too much and damaging, or at least risking, their health.

The coalition government agrees that alcohol misuse is a problem, but does not support a minimum price.

NICE's guidance focuses on the damaging impact of excessive alcohol, and suggests ways for the government, the NHS and others to reduce the harm from misuse, based on the best available evidence.

It says in 2005 alcohol consumption caused nearly 15,000 deaths. The watchdog puts the annual cost to the NHS at over £2bn, and it concludes that misuse may be linked to 1.2 million violent incidents a year.
Tough measures

The guidance recommends a raft of measures, including banning advertising and making alcohol less easy to buy.
UK alcohol consumption and real price

This could include cutting how much holidaymakers are allowed to bring into the country from abroad, and reducing the number of shops selling alcohol, as well as the days and hours it can be bought.

Councils should look at how many shops are already selling drink in an area to check if a place is "saturated" before granting new licences.

And patients could face tougher questions on their alcohol intake from GPs, doctors and pharmacists.

But NICE says the most effective approach is to make alcohol "less affordable", pushing up the cost of the cheapest drinks through a minimum price per unit of alcohol.

Professor Mike Kelly, public health director at NICE, told BBC Radio 4's Today programme that minimum pricing was the "most effective way of targeting problem drinkers".

He added: "It wouldn't affect the 'on' trade by and large, because most pubs sell well above that price. It really is a measure designed to attack cheap alcohol in the 'off' trade."

One of the leading authors of the report, health economist Professor Anne Ludbrook, says this approach would target the heaviest drinkers.

"Alcohol is much more affordable now than it ever has been - and the price people pay does not reflect the cost of the health and social harms that arise.

"When it is sold at a very low price, people often buy and then consume more than they otherwise would have done."

Professor Ludbrook says there would be a big impact on the price of heavily discounted alcohol in supermarkets.

"At the example price of 50 pence, a bottle of vodka would be just over £13. Whereas in the supermarkets currently you could find vodka selling at below £8. Cheap white cider, for example, would go up to over £7 a bottle. It's currently selling at about £2."
SUGGESTED MEASURES

This idea has strong backing from doctors and health campaigners, and the Scottish government is already trying to introduce a minimum price.

Wales also supports minimum pricing. A spokesperson for the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety in Northern Ireland said: "The issue of alcohol pricing remains an issue which is under active consideration."

Dr Robin Purshouse, of Sheffield University, did research on alcohol pricing for the Scottish Government.

He estimates that a minimum price on every unit of 40 pence would result in about 1,000 fewer premature deaths a year, about 40,000 fewer hospital admissions a year, and about 10,000 fewer violent crimes and criminal damage incidents per year.

"There's a wide range of factors that relate to people's alcohol consumption, but price is widely recognised as one of the greatest levers," he said.

"And if you look at the prices people pay, then the people who drink the most tend to pay less for the alcohol that they purchase."

But the Westminster coalition, which sets policy for England, prefers a ban on the sale of alcohol below cost price.

In a statement, Health Secretary Andrew Lansley agreed with NICE on the urgency of the problem, but he said it was not clear that a minimum price "is the best way to impact price in order to impact demand".
'Cultural issue'

The drinks industry agrees.

Simon Litherland of Diageo GB said: "Yet again it is disappointing to see continued support for minimum pricing despite no credible empirical evidence that it would be an effective measure in reducing alcohol-related harm."

Andrew Opie, food policy director at the British Retail Consortium, said: "It's too simplistic to say the UK's alcohol problems are down to price.

"Irresponsible alcohol consumption is primarily a cultural issue that needs to be addressed through education and information."

Tesco recently announced its support for a minimum price, but the Wine and Spirit Trade association remains opposed.

A spokesman, Gavin Partington, said measures in the guidance would "merely punish the majority of British consumers who drink responsibly".

He added: "Minimum pricing, self evidently, is not going to address alcohol misuse by heavy drinkers because people logic alone tells you that people who have a problem are going to go to any end to actually obtain alcohol."


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