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zoom RSS 持続する肥満の増加/米国肥満マップ

<<   作成日時 : 2010/08/05 23:58   >>

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 米国では肥満の増加が続いており、肥満割合が30%以上が2007年には3州だったが昨年は9州となった。全体で見ると26.7%、7250万人が肥満となり、2年間で240万人増加した。40万人に対する電話調査なので実際はもっと悪いだろう。最近数十年で、成人は2倍に、小児は3倍に増えた。心臓病・脳卒中・糖尿病・がんなど肥満の合併症が増加するだろう。肥満に伴う医療費は1470億ドルと概算され、従来の肥満対策は適切ではなかった。
 BMI30以上を肥満と定義される。アラバマ、アーカンソー、ケンタッキー、ルイジアナ、ミシシッピ、ミズーリ、オクラホマ、テネシー、ウェストバージニアの9州で肥満が30%以上で、最も高いのはミシシッピの34.4%である。50歳以上で肥満の割合が高い。黒人女性が41.9%と最も肥満が多い。コロラドとワシントンD.C.だけが20パーセント未満で低いが理由ははっきりしていない。コロラドは自転車利用を勧め自転車・歩道を整備している。ワシントンは地下鉄利用が多く、果実・野菜の消費と母乳哺育が多い。
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肥満に関連した病気による医療費の増加/米国医療事情
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200907/article_41.html
肥満との戦いに国家的戦略が必要/米国肥満マップ
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200708/article_49.html
子どもの肥満へのミッシェル・オバマの提案/米国医療事情
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201008/article_2.html
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Obesity Rates Keep Rising, Troubling Health Officials
By DENISE GRADY
Published: August 3, 2010
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/04/health/nutrition/04fat.html

画像Americans are continuing to get fatter and fatter, with obesity rates reaching 30 percent or more in nine states last year, as opposed to only three states in 2007, health officials reported on Tuesday.

The increases mean that 2.4 million more people became obese from 2007 to 2009, bringing the total to 72.5 million, or 26.7 percent of the population. The numbers are part of a continuing and ominous trend.

But the rates are probably underestimates because they are based on a phone survey in which 400,000 participants were asked their weight and height instead of having it measured by someone else, and people have a notorious tendency to describe themselves as taller and lighter than they really are.

“Over the past several decades, obesity has increased faster than anyone could have imagined it would,” said Dr. Thomas Frieden, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which issued a report on the prevalence of obesity. Obesity rates have doubled in adults and tripled in children in recent decades, Dr. Frieden said.

If the numbers keep going up, he added, “more people will get sick and die from the complications of obesity, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer.”

The report estimates the medical costs of obesity to be as high as $147 billion a year, and notes that “past efforts and investments to prevent and control obesity have not been adequate.”

Researchers blame the usual suspects: too little exercise and too much of the wrong kind of food, which means not enough fruits and vegetables and too many high-calorie meals full of sugar and fat, like French fries, soda and other sweet drinks. Children do not get enough exercise during the school day; Dr. Frieden noted that even in gym classes, students are active for only about a third of the time.

A 5-foot-4-inch woman is obese if she weighs 174 pounds, as is a 5-foot-10-inch man who weights 209 or more, according to the disease centers. Both would have a body-mass index, or BMI, of 30; that index is calculated from height and weight, and scores of 30 or over are defined as obese.

The nine states with obesity rates of 30 percent or more are Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee and West Virginia. The highest rate, 34.4 percent, was in Mississippi.

People over 50 had higher rates of obesity than those who were younger. The aging of the population may account for some of the general increase in obesity, but not all of it, said Dr. Heidi Blanck, chief of the disease centers’ obesity branch of the division of nutrition, physical activity and obesity.

Non-Hispanic black women had the highest obesity rate, 41.9 percent. Over all, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to be obese, and the more education people had, the less likely they were to be heavy.

Only Colorado and Washington, D.C., had obesity rates under 20 percent. Researchers are not sure why. Dr. William Dietz, director of the nutrition, physical activity and obesity division, said that Colorado had spent money from a state lottery on biking and walking trails and that many people were using them. The state seems to have “a culture of physical activity,” he said.

Dr. Dietz said the relatively low prevalence of obesity in Washington was harder to explain, particularly because the area has a large black population.

He said one explanation may be that many residents ride the subway; studies have shown that compared with people who drive, those who use public transportation tend to be thinner because it involves more walking. In addition, Dr. Dietz said, there is evidence of above-average fruit and vegetable consumption, and higher rates of breast-feeding, both of which are linked to lower rates of obesity.
A version of this article appeared in print on August 4, 2010, on page A11 of the New York edition.




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