飲料水の中にPFOA perfluorooctanoic acid（パーフルオロオクタン酸 ペルフルオロオクタン酸）が見つかったオハイオ川中流域の12,000人以上の子どもの血液からコレステロールを調べた。PFOA濃度は全国平均より高く、PFOS perfluorooctanesulfonateは平均値だった。
ＢＰＡの健康への影響調査研究に3000万ドルを投入／米国 ＦＤＡ 哺乳瓶
Study links cholesterol and nonstick coating chemical
By Julie Steenhuysen
CHICAGO | Mon Sep 6, 2010 4:10pm EDT
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Chemicals used to make non-stick coatings on cookware and to waterproof fabrics may raise levels of cholesterol in children, U.S. researchers said on Monday.
Children in a study with the highest levels of these compounds in their blood had measurably higher levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, or LDL -- the so-called "bad" cholesterol -- compared with children with lower readings.
The findings do not prove exposure to these chemicals, called perfluoroalkyl acids, caused the higher readings, but they show a link and suggest the need for more study, Stephanie Frisbee of West Virginia University and colleagues wrote in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
The researchers studied perfluorooctanoic acid or PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonate or PFOS. They make their way into people through drinking water, dust, food packaging, breast milk, cord blood, microwave popcorn, air and occupational exposure, according to the researchers.
Studies in animals suggest perfluoroalkyl acid can affect the liver, which could result in changes in cholesterol levels.
Frisbee and colleagues examined cholesterol levels in blood samples taken from more than 12,000 children in the mid-Ohio River Valley who had PFOA in their drinking water.
Children and teens in the study had more PFOA in their bodies than the national average, and a PFOS concentration about the same as the national average.
Children and teens with the highest PFOA concentration had total cholesterol levels that were 4.6 points higher and LDL levels that were 3.8 points higher than those with the lowest PFOA levels.
The team said the findings suggest an association between the compounds and higher cholesterol, but it would take more studies to prove chemical exposure was the cause.
Bernard Weiss of the University of Rochester in New York, an expert on toxins who was not involved in the research, said perfluoroalkyl acids are a known neurotoxin.
"They interfere with brain development, which leaves its mark on later behavioral functions such as cognitive performance," he said in a statement.
The potential health effects of chemicals, such as the plastics chemical bisphenol A used in baby bottles and other products, is becoming a growing concern among U.S., Canadian and European health officials.
Recent studies have shown subtle effects of low doses of BPA in laboratory animals and U.S. health officials in January launched a broader investigation of environmental health risks to children.
(Editing by Cynthia Osterman)
Perfluorooctanoic Acid, Perfluorooctanesulfonate, and Serum Lipids in Children and Adolescents
Results From the C8 Health Project
Stephanie J. Frisbee, MSc, MA; Anoop Shankar, MD, PhD; Sarah S. Knox, PhD; Kyle Steenland, PhD; David A. Savitz, PhD; Tony Fletcher, PhD; Alan M. Ducatman, MD, MS
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(9):860-869. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.163
Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS were positively associated with serum lipid levels.
Objective To interrogate associations between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children and adolescents.
Design Cross-sectional community-based study.
Setting Mid--Ohio River Valley.
Participants A total of 12 476 children and adolescents included in the C8 Health Project, which resulted from the pretrial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply.
Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C] cholesterol and fasting triglycerides).
Results Mean (SD) serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2 (111.9) ng/mL and 22.7 (12.6) ng/mL, respectively. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total cholesterol and LDL-C, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C. Using general linear model analysis of covariance, between the first and fifth quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6-mg/dL and a 3.8-mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C levels, respectively, and an 8.5-mg/dL and a 5.8-mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively, between the first and fifth quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and sex-group strata. Observed effects were nonlinear, with larger increases in total cholesterol and LDL-C levels occurring at the lowest range, particularly of PFOA.
Conclusion Although the epidemiologic and cross-sectional natures of this study limit causal inferences, the consistently observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total cholesterol and LDL-C levels warrant further study.
Author Affiliations: Department of Community Medicine (Ms Frisbee and Drs Shankar, Knox, and Ducatman) and Center for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences (Ms Frisbee and Dr Shankar), West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Steenland); Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (Dr Savitz); and Public Health and Environmental Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England (Dr Fletcher).
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