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zoom RSS コーヒーが前立腺ガンのリスクを減らす

<<   作成日時 : 2011/05/18 23:33   >>

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画像 約5万人の米国男性の研究によれば、コーヒーは前立腺ガンによる死亡リスクを減少させるという。6杯以上飲む人は発症率が20%低いとわかった。さらに、転移する侵襲性の高いタイプの発症リスクは60%減少する。
 しかしながらまだ不明瞭な問題もあり、前立腺ガンを防止するためにコーヒーを飲むことは勧められないという。
 米国の約48,000人の1986-2006年の20年間のコーヒー摂取を調査した。20年間で5,035人に前立腺ガンが発症し、642人が死亡した。
 カフェイン含有かカフェイン除去かには関連なかった。1日1-3杯の少量でも致死性の前立腺ガン発症は30%少なかった。コーヒーの中に発病を防ぐ未知の化合物が含まれている可能性がある。
 しかし、他の研究ではこうした関連を示すような証拠は見つかっていない。カフェイン多量摂取は他の健康問題を引き起こす可能性があり、良性の前立腺障害のある人は尿路系症状を悪化させるかもしれない。

----------------------------------------------------
17 May 2011 Last updated at 20:33 GMT
Coffee 'cuts prostate cancer risk' US study suggests
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-13430219

Coffee has been linked to a reduced risk of dying from prostate cancer in a study of nearly 50,000 US men.

Those who drank six or more cups a day were found to be 20% less likely to develop any form of the disease - which is the most common cancer in men.

They were also 60% less likely to develop an aggressive form which can spread to other parts of the body.

But charities say the evidence, reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, is still unclear.

They do not recommend that men take up coffee drinking in the hope of preventing prostate cancer.
Unknown compounds

The study looked at about 48,000 men in the US who work as health professionals.

Every four years between 1986 and 2006, they were asked to report their average daily intake of coffee.

During this 20-year period, 5,035 of the men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, including 642 fatal cases.
Continue reading the main story
Prostate cancer

Each year about 37,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in the UK
Some 10,000 die from the disease
Symptoms include problems passing urine but they may be mild or non-existent

No difference was seen between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, suggesting caffeine itself was not the cause.

But even relatively small amounts of coffee - one to three cups per day - were found to lower the risk of lethal prostate cancer by 30%.

The researchers think there may be unknown compounds in coffee that protect against the disease.

Lead researcher Dr Kathryn Wilson, from the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, said: "At present we lack an understanding of risk factors that can be changed or controlled to lower the risk of lethal prostate cancer.

"If our findings are validated, coffee could represent one modifiable factor that may lower the risk of developing the most harmful form of prostate cancer."

Commenting on the study, Dr Helen Rippon of The Prostate Cancer Charity, said other studies had not shown the link and the research evidence was still unclear.

She added: "Although this study is a welcome addition to our knowledge, it is far from definitive and we would not recommend men who are not already habitual coffee drinkers to become so in the hope of preventing prostate cancer.
Continue reading the main story
The data

Previous studies have shown no clear link between coffee and prostate cancer risk
Men who drank six or more cups of coffee per day had a slightly lower risk of any form of prostate cancer and a substantially lower risk of lethal prostate cancer compared with non-coffee drinkers, according to the researchers
Both caff and decaff were associated with similar risks

"Heavy caffeine intake is associated with other health problems and men with benign prostate problems might well make urinary symptoms worse."

Yinka Ebo, senior health information officer at Cancer Research UK, said: "There's no need for men to start drinking gallons of coffee in an attempt to lower their prostate cancer risk.

"A number of other studies looking at coffee and prostate cancer have found that drinking coffee does not affect the risk of the disease, and this study only found a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer in men who drank more than six cups a day.

"We would need to see these results repeated in other large studies before we can be sure whether coffee consumption affects the risk of prostate cancer."

----------------------------------------------------
Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

Kathryn M. Wilson,
Julie L. Kasperzyk,
Jennifer R. Rider,
Stacey Kenfield,
Rob M. van Dam,
Meir J. Stampfer,
Edward Giovannucci and
Lorelei A. Mucci

+ Author Affiliations

Affiliations of authors: Department of Epidemiology (KMW, JLK, SK, MJS, EG, LAM) and Department of Nutrition (RMvD, MJS, EG), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (KMW, JLK, JRR, SK, MJS, EG, LAM); Department of Urology, O"rebro University Hospital, O"rebro, Sweden (JRR); Department of Epidemiology and Department of Public Health and Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (RMvD)

Correspondence to: Kathryn M. Wilson, ScD, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (e-mail: kwilson@hsph.harvard.edu).

Received September 1, 2010.
Revision received March 31, 2011.
Accepted April 1, 2011.

Abstract

Background Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and phenolic acids, that have potent antioxidant activity and can affect glucose metabolism and sex hormone levels. Because of these biological activities, coffee may be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.

Methods We conducted a prospective analysis of 47 911 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who reported intake of regular and decaffeinated coffee in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter. From 1986 to 2006, 5035 patients with prostate cancer were identified, including 642 patients with lethal prostate cancers, defined as fatal or metastatic. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between coffee and prostate cancer, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking, obesity, and other variables. All P values were from two-sided tests.

Results The average intake of coffee in 1986 was 1.9 cups per day. Men who consumed six or more cups per day had a lower adjusted relative risk for overall prostate cancer compared with nondrinkers (RR = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 0.98, Ptrend = .10). The association was stronger for lethal prostate cancer (consumers of more than six cups of coffee per day: RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.75, Ptrend = .03). Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of nonadvanced or low-grade cancers and was only weakly inversely associated with high-grade cancer. The inverse association with lethal cancer was similar for regular and decaffeinated coffee (each one cup per day increment: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.01, P = .08 for regular coffee and RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.00, P = .05 for decaffeinated coffee). The age-adjusted incidence rates for men who had the highest (?6 cups per day) and lowest (no coffee) coffee consumption were 425 and 519 total prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years and 34 and 79 lethal prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years.

Conclusions We observed a strong inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of lethal prostate cancer. The association appears to be related to non-caffeine components of coffee.

(c) The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

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