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<<   作成日時 : 2012/01/05 20:06   >>

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FDA 家畜の抗生物質使用制限へ
画像 米当局は、抗生物質使用により耐性細菌感染症の脅威が高めている可能性があることから、牛、豚、鶏や七面鳥へのある種の抗生物質所用を制限する必要があると表明した。
 セファロスポリンとして知られている抗生物質で溶連菌感染、気管支炎などによく使用されている。
 抗生物質は多くの場合、動物の飼料に添加し、家畜の急速な成長を促進するために日常的に使用されているが、FDAは、農業における抗生物質の乱用が人間の健康を危険にさらしていることの懸念を主張している。水曜日にFDAはセファロスポリンの一部用途制限を表明した。
 2008年にセファロスポリンの制限を提案したが、農家の反対で撤回した。今回は、2008年提案ルールほど厳格ではなく、古いタイプは使用可能である。獣医師はガイドラインに沿って治療に使用可能である。農業使用の規制案は議会で農業団体の強力な反対に遭い成立していない。

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抗生物質に汚染される牛乳/米国 多剤耐性菌
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201101/article_24.html
食肉生産での抗生物質使用の制限を/多剤耐性菌 米国医療事情
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201009/article_12.html
抗生物質の使用と薬剤耐性菌の発生について −家畜用の抗生物質の見直し−農林水産省消費・安全局
http://www.maff.go.jp/syoku_anzen/20031110/giji.pdf
動物への抗生物質使用を制限/FDA
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201007/article_4.html

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F.D.A. Restricts Use of Antibiotics in Livestock
By GARDINER HARRIS
Published: January 4, 2012

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/health/policy/fda-restricts-use-of-antibiotics-in-livestock.html

WASHINGTON ? Federal drug regulators announced Wednesday that farmers and ranchers must restrict their use of a critical class of antibiotics in cattle, pigs, chickens and turkeys because such practices may have contributed to the growing threat of bacterial infections in people that are resistant to treatment.

The medicines belong to a class of antibiotics known as cephalosporins and include such brands as Cefzil and Keflex. They are among the most common antibiotics prescribed to treat strep throat, bronchitis, skin infections and urinary tract infections. Surgeons also often use them before surgery to prevent bacterial infections.

The drugs’ use in agriculture has, according to many microbiologists, led to the development of bacteria that are resistant to the drugs’ effects, a development that many doctors say has endangered the lives of patients.

Antibiotics are often added to animal feed and are used routinely to encourage rapid growth of livestock, but officials at the Food and Drug Administration have been increasingly vocal in their concerns that overuse of antibiotics in agriculture is endangering human health. The agency proposed rules in 2010 to slow the use of penicillin, tetracycline and other antibiotics simply to promote growth or prevent disease in feed animals, but those rules have yet to be made final.

Cephalosporins are not used as widely among livestock as penicillin, since they still require a prescription from veterinarians. But the drugs are routinely injected into fertilized eggs and are also used in large doses to treat various infections in cattle.

The F.D.A. announcement on Wednesday has the effect of restricting some but not all uses of cephalosporins in agriculture and is therefore a modest step that is likely to please some consumer advocates but lead others to grumble that the agency needs to do much more.

"We believe this is an imperative step in preserving the effectiveness of this class of important antimicrobials that takes into account the need to protect the health of both humans and animals," said Michael R. Taylor, deputy commissioner for foods at the agency.

The F.D.A. initially proposed its cephalosporin restrictions in 2008 but withdrew the rule before it became effective because of opposition from farmers and ranchers. The rule announced Wednesday is less strict than the one proposed in 2008; it allows for unrestricted use of cephapirin, an older member of the class of cephalosporins that is not thought to contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. And the new rule allows veterinarians to continue to use the drugs to treat many illnesses in feed animals as long as they follow guidelines about dosing and duration of use. The new rule also allows for use of the drugs in ducks and rabbits.

Agricultural organizations have disputed claims that antibiotics are overused in animals and that those uses have contributed to antimicrobial resistance, saying that farmers and ranchers use the medicines judiciously. While legislation has been proposed in Congress to restrict the use of antibiotics in agriculture, powerful agricultural interests have blocked these bills and consecutive administrations have been unwilling to challenge these interests by using F.D.A. rules to crack down on antibiotic use in feed animals.

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