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zoom RSS 低線量被曝の動物への影響

<<   作成日時 : 2012/02/04 19:17   >>

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福島の放射性物質 米大学が調査
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20120204/k10015775161000.html
2月4日 7時37分
東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故で放出された放射性物質が、周辺に生息する生物にどのような影響を与えているのかについて調べるため、アメリカの大学の研究チームが、ことし5月から、福島県などで本格的な調査を始めることになりました。
調査に当たるのは、アメリカ南部にあるサウスカロライナ大学のティモシー・ムソー教授の研究チームです。ムソー教授の研究チームは、チェルノブイリ原発事故で放出された放射性物質が、周辺地域に生息する鳥や虫、それに植物などの生物に、どのような影響を与えているのかを13年以上にわたり継続的に調べています。その結果、毎時1マイクロシーベルトから3マイクロシーベルトといった低い線量の地域でも、鳥や虫などの生物に個体数の減少や異常が見られたとしています。こうしたことから、研究チームは、福島第一原発の事故でも、鳥や虫などの生物を長期に渡って調査することで、低い線量の放射線の影響が分かるのではないかとみており、日本の研究者などの協力を得ながら、長期的に調査したいとしています。研究チームを率いるムソー教授は、調査に向けた準備のため、今月中旬から福島を訪れる予定で、「鳥などの生物は、世代交代のペースがヒトと比べて早く、放射線が遺伝に与える影響も調べることができる。ヒトへの影響を調べるうえでの手がかりになる」と話しています。

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PLoS One. 2011 Feb 4;6(2):e16862.
Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.
Moller AP, Bonisoli-Alquati A, Rudolfsen G, Mousseau TA.
Source
Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, France. anders.moller@u-psud.fr

画像Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING:
Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:
Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

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Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):720-5. Epub 2010 Jan 25.
137Cesium exposure and spirometry measures in Ukrainian children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear incident.
Svendsen ER, Kolpakov IE, Stepanova YI, Vdovenko VY, Naboka MV, Mousseau TA, Mohr LC, Hoel DG, Karmaus WJ.
Source
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 , USA. svendsee@mailbox.sc.edu

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, children of the contaminated Narodichesky region of Ukraine were obliged to participate in a yearly medical screening. They have been exposed to 137cesium (137Cs; half-life = 30 years) in contaminated soils, air, and food.

OBJECTIVE:
Using a "natural experiment" approach and a longitudinal prospective cohort study design, we investigated the association of soil 137Cs and spirometry measures for 415 children using 1,888 repeated measurements from 1993 to 1998.

METHODS:
Mean baseline village soil 137Cs measurements, which varied from 29.0 to 879 kBq/m2, were used as exposure indicators. A standardized spirometry protocol and prediction equations specific to Ukrainian children were used by the same pulmonologist in all screenings.

RESULTS:
Children living in villages with the highest quintile of soil 137Cs were 2.60 times more likely to have forced vital capacity (FVC) < 80% of predicted [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-6.34] and 5.08 times more likely to have a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) to FVC% < 80% (95% CI, 1.02-25.19). We found statistically significant evidence of both airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and maximum expiratory flow at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC) and restriction (FVC) with increasing soil 137Cs.

CONCLUSIONS:
These findings are unique and suggest significant airway obstruction and restriction consequences for children chronically exposed to low-dose radioactive contaminants such as those found downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

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Biol Lett. 2009 Jun 23;5(3):356-9. Epub 2009 Mar 18.
Reduced abundance of insects and spiders linked to radiation at Chernobyl 20 years after the accident.
Moller AP, Mousseau TA.
Source
Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8079, Batiment 362, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France. anders.moller@u-psud.fr

Abstract
Effects of low-level radiation on abundance of animals are poorly known. We conducted standardized point counts and line transects of bumble-bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies and spider webs at forest sites around Chernobyl differing in background radiation by over four orders of magnitude. Abundance of invertebrates decreased with increasing radiation, even after controlling for factors such as soil type, habitat and height of vegetation. These effects were stronger when comparing plots differing in radiation within rather than among sites, implying that the ecological effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals are greater than previously assumed.

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低線量セシウム慢性被曝による中枢神経系障害/内部被曝 海馬 神経炎症
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201109/article_10.html
セシウム137慢性被曝ラットの睡眠覚醒サイクルへの影響
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201108/article_18.html
慢性的低線量セシウム放射線被曝による子どもの呼吸機能障害
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201107/article_16.html
低レベル放射能がもたらす健康被害は?/福島原発
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201104/article_9.html

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