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<<   作成日時 : 2013/02/15 23:10   >>

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抗不安薬オキサゼパムによる自然界の魚への影響/スウェーデン

 よく処方されているベンゾジアゼピン系抗不安薬に汚染された水に住む野生の魚パーチが攻撃的となり他の魚を避け注意力が低下するとの研究結果がスウェーデンの研究者により発表された。下水処理場の下流の水路で検出された濃度1.8μg/lによる行動試験で確認された。

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向精神薬成分で自然界の魚に異常 下水から川に流出
2013年2月15日 04時00分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2013021401001500.html
 淡水魚ヨーロピアンパーチ(スウェーデン・ウメア大提供)

画像 【ワシントン共同】不安症状を抑える目的で人に処方される向精神薬の一種が下水を通じて川に流れ出して自然界の魚に蓄積すると、用心深さを失うなどの異常を引き起こす可能性があるとする調査結果を、スウェーデン・ウメア大のチームが14日付の米科学誌サイエンスに発表した。
 スウェーデンの川の水や魚の体から微量の向精神薬「オキサゼパム」を検出。薬にさらされると魚は行動が大胆になり、餌を食べる頻度が増えることも実験で確認した。
 チームは「向精神薬以外の薬も何らかの影響を及ぼす可能性がある。下水処理に薬の成分を除去するプロセスを加える必要がある」としている。


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Perch exposed to human anti-anxiety drugs become isolated, aggressive - study
http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/15/us-drugs-fish-idUSBRE91E00720130215

By Irene Klotz
BOSTON | Thu Feb 14, 2013 7:07pm EST
(Reuters) - Wild perch living in water tainted with a commonly prescribed human anti-anxiety drug aggressively feed, shun other fish and become careless, according to the results of a study presented at a meeting of scientists on Thursday.

"We knew there was a pharmaceutical that was present in the environment that had behavioral-changing capabilities in humans, but what could this do to fish?" said chemist Jerker Fick of Umea University in Sweden.

The findings highlighted the potential ecological implications of even trace amounts of psychiatric pharmaceuticals that are excreted in human urine and survive wastewater treatment plant processes, scientists told a meeting in Boston of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

For the experiment, scientists divided 75 wild European perch into three groups. One group lived in clean water. The second group's water had low concentrations of Oxazepam, a commonly prescribed medication used to treat anxiety in humans.

The concentration was similar to what is found in waterways downstream from sewage treatment plants.

The third group's water had 500 times the amount of Oxazepam typically found in waterways. After a week, the fish were subjected to routine behavioral tests.

"Before we exposed the perch to the drug they were all very shy. They were not taking any risks at all basically. After exposure, they were swimming around much more, like they were unconcerned, and they were not as social. They just wanted to swim on their own. Some even avoided schools as much as possible," lead researcher Tomas Brodin, also with Umea University, told Reuters.

Fish exposed to Oxazepam also became more aggressive feeders, he said.

"I have no doubt that the behavioral effects we see are true and that they are potentially going on as we speak," Brodin said.

"This is a global issue," he added. "We find these concentrations (of psychiatric drugs) or close to them, all over the world."

The scientists plan to expand the study to look at the wider ecological effects of Oxazepam and to understand on a molecular level what happens to perch that are exposed to the drug.

The research appears in this week's Science magazine.

(Reporting by Irene Klotz; Editing by Tom Brown, Toni Reinhold)

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Science 15 February 2013:
Vol. 339 no. 6121 pp. 814-815
DOI: 10.1126/science.1226850
REPORT
Dilute Concentrations of a Psychiatric Drug Alter Behavior of Fish from Natural Populations
T. Brodin1,*, J. Fick2, M. Jonsson1, J. Klaminder1
+ Author Affiliations

1Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, 90187 Umea, Sweden.
2Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 90187 Umea, Sweden.
?*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: tomas.brodin@emg.umu.se
ABSTRACT

Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A variety of pharmaceuticals enter waterways by way of treated wastewater effluents and remain biochemically active in aquatic systems. Several ecotoxicological studies have been done, but generally, little is known about the ecological effects of pharmaceuticals. Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in effluent-influenced surface waters. Individuals exposed to water with dilute drug concentrations (1.8 micrograms liter?1) exhibited increased activity, reduced sociality, and higher feeding rate. As such, our results show that anxiolytic drugs in surface waters alter animal behaviors that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences.

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