食料と燃料に消える森林

 食物と燃料用穀物を育てるための土地を拡大するために、森林破壊につながる森の供給が増加している。熱帯の森林地域を食いつぶさずとも半分で2030年まで供給できたはずだ。発展途上国の土地の所有権と管理の変更は進んでいない。
 間違いなく、更なる森林破壊と紛争、より多くの炭素排出、更なる気候変動、より少ない繁栄へと向かっている。
 食物、バイオ燃料への高まる需要と紙や建物、産業用のための木材のために、2030年には5億1500万ヘクタールの土地が、作物と木を育てるためにさらに必要であると試算されている。しかし、熱帯雨林を除いて入手可能なものはわずか2億ヘクタールにすぎない。
 森林のさらに増大する需要が見込まれる。
 2050年に食物需要を満たすために必要とされる追加の農地面積は約30億ヘクタールとする研究がある。現在世界には、約14億ヘクタールの耕地と約34億ヘクタールの牧草地がある。気候変動により生産高が低下している地域もある。追加の農地を熱帯林に求めれば、現在約20%の温室効果ガスの原因となっている森林破壊により、気候変動が悪化することになる。
 熱帯林の大規模な略奪が避けられるならば、土地所有権の改革が必要である。地域社会の財産権を保護するというグローバルな決意をすることが重要である。
 西アフリカで、森林住民が、自らの土地を管理する法的権利を取得するのを手助けすることに向けられたプログラムをDfIDは実行している。
 RRIは、開発途上国の中に森林を保存することによって気候変動を抑制する動きを助けることができると断定している。世界の現在の暴力的な矛盾の約3分の2が土地保有問題によって動かされるという。
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EUのバイオ燃料政策の過ち/新バイオ燃料を使用のハイブリッド都バス
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200709/article_57.html
ドイツから学ぶこと
http://kurie.at.webry.info/200804/article_41.html
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Page last updated at 23:04 GMT, Sunday, 13 July 2008 00:04 UK
Forests to fall for food and fuel
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7503304.stm
By Richard Black
Environment correspondent, BBC News website

画像Biodiesel pump
Demand for biofuels will add to pressure on forests, the report warns

Demand for land to grow food, fuel crops and wood is set to outstrip supply, leading to the probable destruction of forests, a report warns.

The Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) says only half of the extra land needed by 2030 is available without eating into tropical forested areas.

A companion report documents poor progress in reforming land ownership and governance in developing countries.

Both reports will be launched on Monday in UK government offices in London.

Supporters of RRI include the UK's Department of International Development (DfID) and its equivalents in Sweden and Switzerland.

The dual crises of fuel and food are attracting significant land speculation
Andy White, RRI

"Arguably, we are on the verge of a last great global land grab," said RRI's Andy White, co-author of the major report, Seeing People through the Trees.

"It will mean more deforestation, more conflict, more carbon emissions, more climate change and less prosperity for everyone."

Rising demand for food, biofuels and wood for paper, building and industry means that 515 million hectares of extra land will be needed for growing crops and trees by 2030, RRI calculates.

But only 200 million hectares will be available without dipping into tropical forests.

Forest focus

The report foresees demand increasing further into the century.

Market stall selling food in Senegal

'New crops needed' to avoid famine

It cites studies suggesting that "...if the current plateau in productivity continues, the amount of additional agricultural land required just to meet the world's projected food demand in 2050 would be about three billion hectares, nearly all of which would be required in developing countries."

According to UN figures, the world currently has about 1.4 billion hectares of arable land and about 3.4 billion hectares of pasture.

Some academics place their hopes in agricultural technologies including genetic engineering to boost crop yields.

But since the spectacular successes of the Green Revolution, advances have been slow. In some areas, yields are falling - a trend which is likely to be exacerbated by climate change.

However, eating into tropical forests to create extra agricultural land would, in turn, exacerbate climate change, with deforestation currently accounting for about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions.

Reform call

One of RRI's key conclusions is that reform of land ownership is crucial, if large-scale pillage of tropical forests is to be avoided.

The conclusion is supported by DfID, whose minister Gareth Thomas will be speaking at the launch event.

"These new studies should strengthen global resolve to protect the property rights of indigenous and local communities who play a vital role in protecting one the most outstanding natural wonders of the world," he said.

DfID runs programmes in West Africa aimed at helping forest dwellers acquire the legal right to manage their land.
Drawing maps of forest areas in mud in Bandundu Province, DRC
Many indigenous peoples need help in acquiring rights to the land they live on

"It is clear that the dual crises of fuel and food are attracting significant new investments and great land speculation," said Andy White.

"Only by protecting the rights of the people who live in and around the world's most vulnerable forests can we prevent the devastation these forces will wreak on the poor."

But the second RRI report - From Exclusion to Ownership? - says progress in reforming ownership has been slow, with only a few countries such as Brazil, Cameroon and Tanzania handing over significant tracts to local communities.

Moves to curb climate change by preserving forests in developing countries could help, RRI concludes. But it also raises the question of who owns rights to the trees - the rich Western countries that want to fund carbon sequestration, or the people who live in the forest areas?

Sorting out ownership could not only help on the environmental front, but also remove reasons for conflict. RRI calculates that about two-thirds of the world's current violent conflicts are driven by land tenure issues.

Richard.Black-INTERNET@bbc.co.uk

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