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zoom RSS 高速道路に近いと低出生体重児が生まれやすい

<<   作成日時 : 2008/08/14 22:11   >>

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 高速道路から220ヤード(201m)以内の高級住宅街に住むひとが、早産(PTB)で58%、低出生体重(LBW)で81%、SGA(small-for-gestational-age)で32%のリスクの増大がみられたとのカナダからの研究報告。1997-2001年にモントリオールで生まれた99,819人の新生児の調査で判明した。
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Childbirth: Highway Proximity Linked to Birth Weight
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/12/health/12chil.html?_r=1&ref=health&oref=slogin
By NICHOLAS BAKALAR
Published: August 11, 2008

A Canadian study suggests that mothers living near highways are more likely to give birth to preterm or low-birth-weight babies, but contrary to previous studies it found the association only in wealthy neighborhoods.

画像The study, published in the August edition of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, looked at the medical records of 99,819 singleton births in Montreal from 1997 to 2001. Researchers measured the distance of mothers’ addresses from the nearest highway and determined their socioeconomic and education levels from census data.

They found that compared with living in a wealthy neighborhood farther away, living in a wealthy neighborhood within 220 yards of a highway was associated with a 58 percent increased risk of preterm birth, an 81 percent increased risk of low birth weight, and a 32 percent increased risk of being small for gestational age. Proximity to a highway was not associated with any adverse birth effects in poorer neighborhoods.

“Low-income mothers are exposed to more risk factors ― smoking, poor nutrition, poor access to prenatal care, domestic violence,” said Dr. Mélissa Généreux, the lead author and a resident physician at the University of Montreal. “More advantaged mothers are protected from these risk factors, so they might be more affected by the addition of a single new risk factor, pollution from highways.”
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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2008;62:695-700; doi:10.1136/jech.2007.066167
Copyright © 2008 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

RESEARCH REPORTS
Neighbourhood socioeconomic status, maternal education and adverse birth outcomes among mothers living near highways
M Généreux1, N Auger2,3, M Goneau2, M Daniel3,4

1 Community Medicine Residency Program, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada
2 Unité Études et Analyses de l’Etat de Santé de la Population, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Montréal, Canada
3 Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada
4 University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

Correspondence to:
Dr M Généreux, Secteur Enseignement-Recherche, Direction de Santé Publique de Montréal, 1301 Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H2L 1M3; m.genereux@videotron.ca

Background: Residential proximity to highways is a potential proxy for exposure to traffic-related pollution that has been linked to adverse birth outcomes. We evaluated whether proximity to highway interacts with individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) to influence birth outcomes.

Methods: The study population consisted of all live singleton births in Montréal, Canada, from 1997 to 2001 (n = 99 819). Proximity was defined as residing within 200 m of a highway. Neighbourhood SES was measured for census tracts as the proportion of families below the low-income threshold. Individual SES was represented by maternal education. Using multilevel logistic regression, the odds of preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were calculated for mothers residing in proximity to highways, accounting for individual and neighbourhood SES. Effect modification between SES and proximity to highway was tested for each outcome.

Results: In wealthy neighbourhoods, proximity to highway was associated with an elevated odds of PTB (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.04), LBW (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.41) and SGA birth (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.66). For highly educated mothers, proximity to highway was associated with PTB (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46) and LBW (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.49), but the association was borderline for SGA birth (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.32). Proximity to highway was not associated with birth outcomes in other maternal and neighbourhood SES categories.

Conclusion: Counterintuitively, high SES mothers may be more likely than low SES mothers to experience adverse births associated with residential proximity to highway.

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