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 妊娠出産で毎年50万人の妊婦が死亡
画像 国連児童基金(UNICEF)によれば、緊急事の産科治療が受けられず多くは出血により、50万人以上の女性が妊娠・出産で毎年死亡しているという。
 「子供のための進歩:母性成績表」という表題を付けられたリポートの中で、2005年に世界で概算される536,000の妊婦死亡の99パーセント以上が開発途上国(そのうち半分はサハラ以南のアフリカ)でみられた。重大なボトルネックは緊急時産科医療、特に帝王切開に熟練したスタッフへのアクセスである。発展途上国での5,000万出産、全世界の出産の4/10で訓練されたスタッフの下での出産がなされていない。アジア・アフリカでの母体死亡の1/3が出血多量による。他の原因として感染、高血圧、流産合併症、obstructed labor、HIV/AIDS など。
 発展途上国の母体死の生涯リスクは全体として1/76で、先進国では1/8,000である。最も危険な国は1/7のリスクのニジェール、1/8のシエラレオーネである。スリランカとモザンビークを含む開発途上国は、母体死亡率を減らすことに成功した。
 1990-2015年で75%低下、15万人以下という死亡率の低下目標に届かないだろう。毎年100億ドル以上の追加資金が必要だろう。
 先週UNICEFは、2007年、5才までに900万人以上の子どもが死亡していると発表した。
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500,000 Women Die in Pregnancy, Childbirth: UNICEF
UNICEF Says Half a Million Women Die Each Year in Pregnancy and Childbirth
By Stephanie Nebehay
September 19, 2008
http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5841334

画像pregnant
Pregnant women share a room in the obstetrics ward at the Peking University First Hospital in... Expand
Pregnant women share a room in the obstetrics ward at the Peking University First Hospital in Beijing in this file photo.Despite modest progress, particularly in Asia, the global maternal mortality toll remains stubbornly stable due to a lack of financial resources and political will, UNICEF said. Collapse
(FREDERIC J. BROWN/AFP/Getty Images)

GENEVA (Reuters) - More than half a million women still die each year in pregnancy and childbirth, often bleeding to death because no emergency obstetrical care is available, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said on Friday.

Despite modest progress, particularly in Asia, the global maternal mortality toll remains stubbornly stable due to a lack of financial resources and political will, it said.

More than 99 percent of the estimated 536,000 maternal deaths worldwide in 2005 occurred in developing countries, half of them in sub-Saharan Africa, it said in a report entitled "Progress for Children: A Report Card on Maternal Maternity."

"One of the critical bottlenecks has always been access to highly skilled health workers required to deliver emergency obstetrical care, particularly caesarian sections," Peter Salama UNICEF's chief of health, told a news briefing.

Around 50 million births in the developing world, or about 4 in 10 of all births worldwide, are not attended by trained personnel, according to the report.

Hemorrhaging is the leading cause of maternal death in Africa and Asia, causing one in three deaths, it said. Infections, hypertensive disorders, complications of abortion, obstructed labor or HIV/AIDS are other causes.

Such complications can be easily treated in a health system whose facilities are staffed with skilled personnel to handle emergencies around the clock, but disparities persist, it said.

"The lifetime risk of maternal death in the developing world as a whole is 1 in 76, compared with 1 in 8,000 in the industrialized world," UNICEF said.

The riskiest place to give birth is Niger, where the risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth over the course of a woman's lifetime is one in seven, it said. In Sierra Leone it is 1 in 8.

But developing countries including Sri Lanka and Mozambique have succeeded in reducing maternal mortality rates, it said.

A combination of family planning, training skilled birth attendants, emergency obstetrical care and post-natal care is the key to reducing maternal mortality, according to the agency.

At the current average reduction rate of less than one per cent a year, the world will miss the goal of reducing maternal mortality rates by 75 percent between 1990 and 2015, to less than 150,000, one of the Millennium Development Goals, it said.
Related
Some Women 'Devastated' by C-Section

"The time is right. We now know exactly what to do for maternal mortality reduction to make this one of the next big issues in global health," Salama said.

Programs to combat three major epidemics -- HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria -- now receive the required international attention and billions in funding, he said.

"But maternal mortality and child mortality do not yet receive the attention that the scale of the problem deserves," he said. An additional $10 billion would be needed each year to combat both child and maternal mortality, according to Salama.

UNICEF said last week that more than 9 million children died before their fifth birthday in 2007, down slightly from a year before, but a huge gap remains between rich and poor countries.

(Editing by Jonathan Lynn and Richard Balmforth)

Copyright 2008 Reuters News Service. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

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Report highlights risk of maternal mortality in developing world
News item 18 September 2008
http://www.unicef.org.uk/press/news_detail.asp?news_id=1195

COTE D IVOIRE: Kangoute Djenebou,who is seven months pregnant, is examined by a health worker at Bouna Hospital in the rebel-controlled zone. UNICEF supports the hospital with staff training, midwifery kits and other essential supplies.
UNICEF/ HQ06-2780/Bruno Brioni

A new report on maternal mortality, released by UNICEF today, highlights the risks faced during pregnancy and childbirth by women in developing countries.

Progress for Children: A Report Card on Maternal Mortality states that, according to the latest data, more than 99 per cent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries, with some 84 per cent concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

“The tragic fact is that every year more than half a million women lose their lives as a result of complications due to pregnancy or childbirth,” said Peter Salama, UNICEF’s Chief of Health.

“The causes of maternal mortality are clear – as are the means to combat them. Yet women continue to die unnecessarily.”

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