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zoom RSS 米国が過去最高の出生数を記録 2007年

<<   作成日時 : 2009/03/22 00:35   >>

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 米国歴史上最も多くの赤ん坊が2007年に誕生した。水曜日に連邦の研究者によって報告された4,317,119の誕生は1957年のベビーブームの記録を超えた。
 出生率はすべての年の女性でわずかに上がり、数年前始まった傾向に続き、未婚の母への誕生は約40パーセントと最高記録に達した。これらの女性の4分の3以上は20才以上であった。幸福なカップルさえ、結婚せずに一緒に暮らすかもしれない。そして、 より多くの女性― 特に、30代と40代―は、独身で子供を持つことを選んでいる
 ヒスパニック女性の高い出産率があり、米国女性は平均で生涯出生率2.1人である。それは、人口が自身を交換することを要求される「マジック・ナンバー」である。高齢者を世話するのに十分に再生することに失敗する時、日本とイタリアなどのずっと低い出生率の国は未来の労働力不足と税収の落ち込みに直面している。
 専門家には、2007年遅くに始まった経済の景気後退のためすでに出生率が下落していると考える者もいる。米国で記録された最も低い出生率は大恐慌の間に起こり、それは現代の避妊の前にありと、キャロルホーグEmory大学教授は言う。
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US Births Break Record; 40 Pct out-of-Wedlock
US births break baby boom record, topping 4.3 million; 40 pct of babies born out-of-wedlock
By MIKE STOBBE AP Medical Writer
ATLANTA March 18, 2009 (AP)
The Associated Press
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ReproductiveHealth/wireStory?id=7111878

画像Baby Boomlet: US Births in 2007 Break 1950s Record
The number of babies born in the United States topped out at 4.3 million in 2007 -- the highest level ever recorded.
(ABC News Photo Illustration)

Remember the baby boom? No, not the one after World War II. More babies were born in the United States in 2007 than any other year in the nation's history ― and a wedding band made increasingly little difference in the matter. The 4,317,119 births, reported by federal researchers Wednesday, topped a record first set in 1957 at the height of the baby boom.

Behind the number is both good and bad news. While it shows the U.S. population is more than replacing itself, a healthy trend, the teen birth rate was up for a second year in a row.

The birth rate rose slightly for women of all ages, and births to unwed mothers reached an all-time high of about 40 percent, continuing a trend that started years ago. More than three-quarters of these women were 20 or older.

For a variety of reasons, it's become more acceptable for women to have babies without a husband, said Duke University's S. Philip Morgan, a leading fertility researcher.

Even happy couples may be living together without getting married, experts say. And more women ― especially those in their 30s and 40s ― are choosing to have children despite their single status.

The new numbers suggest the second year of a baby boomlet, with U.S. fertility rates higher in every racial group, the highest among Hispanic women. On average, a U.S. woman has 2.1 babies in her lifetime. That's the "magic number" required for a population to replace itself.

Countries with much lower rates ― such as Japan and Italy ― face future labor shortages and eroding tax bases as they fail to reproduce enough to take care of their aging elders.

While the number of births in the U.S. reached nearly 4.3 million in 2006, mainly due to a larger population, especially a growing number of Hispanics, it's not clear the boomlet will last. Some experts think birth rates are already declining because of the economic recession that began in late 2007.

"I expect they'll go back down. The lowest birth rates recorded in the United States occurred during the Great Depression ― and that was before modern contraception," said Dr. Carol Hogue, an Emory University professor of maternal and child health.

The 2007 statistical snapshot reflected a relatively good economy coupled with cultural trends that promoted childbirth, she and others noted.
Graphic shows number of births in the U.S. since
(AP)

Meanwhile, U.S. abortions dropped to their lowest levels in decades, according to other reports. Some have attributed the abortion decline to better use of contraceptives, but other experts have wondered if the rise in births might indicate a failure in proper use of contraceptives. Some earlier studies have shown declining availability of abortions.

Cultural attitudes may be a more likely explanation. Morgan noted the pregnancy of Bristol Palin, the unmarried teen daughter of former GOP vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin. The young woman had a baby boy in December, and plans for a wedding with the father, Levi Johnston, were scrapped.

"She's the poster child for what you do when you get pregnant now," Morgan said.

Teen women tend to follow what their older sisters do, so perhaps it's not surprising that teen births are going up just like births to older women, said Sarah Brown, the chief executive for the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.

Indeed, it's harder to understand why teen births had been declining for about 15 years before the recent uptick, she said. It may have been due to a concentrated effort to reduce teen births in the 1990s that has waned in recent years, she said.

The statistics are based on a review of most 2007 birth certificates by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The numbers also showed:

―Cesarean section deliveries continue to rise, now accounting for almost a third of all births. Health officials say that rate is much higher than is medically necessary. About 34 percent of births to black women were by C-section, more than any other racial group. But geographically, the percentages were highest in Puerto Rico, at 49 percent, and New Jersey, at 38 percent.

―The pre-term birth rate, for infants delivered at less than 37 weeks of pregnancy, declined slightly. It had been generally increasing since the early 1980s. Experts said they aren't sure why it went down.

―Among the states, Utah continued to have the highest birth rate and Vermont the lowest.

CDC officials noted that despite the record number of births, this increase is different from occurred in the 1950s, when a much smaller population of women were having nearly four children each, on average. That baby boom quickly transformed society, affecting everything from school construction to consumer culture.

Today, U.S. women are averaging 2.1 children each. That's the highest level since the early 1970s, but is a relatively small increase from the rate it had hovered at for more than 10 years and is hardly transforming.

"It's the tiniest of baby booms," said Morgan in agreement. "This is not an earthquake; it's a slight tremor."

―――

On the Net:

The CDC report, including some state-by-state figures: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs

Copyright 2009 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

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