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zoom RSS ファラオのハーブ入りワイン/古代エジプトの医療

<<   作成日時 : 2009/04/15 00:38   >>

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 5,000年以上前のおそらく最初のファラオの墓にあったワイン壺に、香油、コリアンダー、ミント、セージといったハーブにワインを浸したことがわかった。
 この墓は紀元前3,150年で、ワインにハーブを加えた最も古い証拠であるという。今までの最も古い記録は、中国で紀元前1200年にニガヨモギ、菊、松ヤニをアルコール飲料に入れたというものであった。
 香辛料としてのものかもしれないが、後のエジプトの記録から薬として追加されたと残されている。紀元前1800年の医学パピルスの中に記録されているが、今回の発見はさらに1000年以上も遡るものである。
 スコーピオン1と呼ばれるファラオはカイロの南約150マイルにあるアビドスに埋葬された。食物や衣類とともに約700のワイン壺が見つかっている。
 ハーブをワインに追加する伝統は、エジプトの歴史の早期から続いていた。エジプト南部で見つかった4-6世紀の最も新しいワイン壺からは、松ヤニとローズマリーが出た。
 ワインを医療に使うことは古代エジプトから確立された医療だった。ニューヨークのメトロポリタン美術館の2005年の展示会は完全にエジプトの中期王朝の実務医療を扱った。それは傷の治療、鎮痛、さらに婦人科や歯科の治療さえ書かれた紀元前1900年ごろの古代パピルスの医師手順書を集めた展示となっている。
 新たなワイン壺の分析には感銘を受けるものであり、驚異的な分析結果である。
 しかし、なぜハーブが追加されたかを知ることは難しい。
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Pharoah's Wine Jar Yields Medicinal Secrets
Egyptians may have been using herb-spiked drink for healing 5,000 years ago
By Ed Edelson, HealthDay Reporter
http://health.msn.com/health-topics/alternative-medicine/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100236674
画像Egyptians may have been using herb-spiked drink for healing 5,000 years ago.

MONDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- The old adage, "take a glass of wine for thy stomach's sake," may have been heeded more than 5,000 years ago in ancient Egypt, archaeologists report.

Sophisticated analysis of residues found in wine jars left in the tomb of Scorpion 1, perhaps the first pharaoh, shows that the wine had been steeped in herbs including balm, coriander, mint and sage, according to a report published in this week's issue April 13 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

That tomb dates back to 3150 B.C., explained lead researcher Patrick E. McGovern, a senior research scientist at the University of Pennsylvania Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology.

"This is the earliest evidence we have of herbs being added to wine," McGovern said. "The earliest previous evidence we had was an alcoholic beverage from China from around 1200 B.C. That one had possibly wormwood or chrysanthemum in it, or a tree resin."

There is no solid proof that the herbs were added for medicinal purposes, but the evidence points in that direction, McGovern said. "It could have been for flavoring, but we have a later literary tradition in Egypt of herbs added for medicinal purposes," he said. "It gets recorded in a medical papyrus in 1800 B.C., and now this goes back more than a thousand years earlier."

McGovern has been working on material from the tomb for many years. Scorpion 1 was entombed in Abydos, then the religious capitol of Egypt, about 150 miles south of Cairo.

"His tomb is one of the most spectacular from the earliest period," McGovern said. "It contained about 700 wines jars as well as food and clothing."

McGovern had done previous analyses of the same wine jar. The new report was based on highly sophisticated studies of residues in the jar, using techniques such as liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction. The initial analysis showed the presence of tartaric acid, and the latest analysis found residues of herbs.

The tradition of adding herbs to wine seems to have continued throughout early Egyptian history. A more recent wine jar, found in southern Egypt and traced to the 4th to 6th centuries A.D., was also laced with pine resin and rosemary, the researchers noted.

Medicinal use of wine could be expected because of the well-established practice of medicine in ancient Egypt. A 2005 exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City was devoted entirely to medical practice in Egypt's Middle Kingdom, which flourished about 1900 B.C. The exhibit centered on ancient papyrus documents with instructions to physicians on wound healing, pain relief, and even the treatment of gynecologic or dental problems.

One expert was impressed with the new wine jar analysis.

"McGovern and co-workers have an amazing analytical accomplishment here," said Andrew L. Waterhouse, chair of the department of viticulture and enology (the study of wines) at the University of California, Davis. "These results further show that simple wine, as we know it, may not have been the most common beverage, but it was more often amended in many ways," he said.

Still, "it is difficult to know why the herbs were added," said Waterhouse, one of the world's leading authorities on ancient wines. "For medicinal purposes? To enhance the flavor? To cover up defects? All are possible."

More information

For more on wine and health, head to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
SOURCES: Patrick E. McGovern, senior research scientist, University of Pennsylvania Museum Applied Science Center for Archaelogy, Philadlephia; Andrew L. Waterhouse, Ph.D., chair, department of viticulture and enology, University of California, Davis; April 13-17, 2009, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Copyright © 2009 ScoutNews, LLC. All rights reserved.
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Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

1. Patrick E. McGoverna,1,
2. Armen Mirzoianb and
3. Gretchen R. Halla

1. aMuseum Applied Science Center for Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA 19104; and
2. bScientific Services Division, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, U.S. Treasury, Beltsville, MD 20705

1. Edited by Ofer Bar-Yosef, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and approved February 23, 2009 (received for review November 17, 2008)

Abstract

Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products―specifically, herbs and tree resins―were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques.
Keywords:

* ancient medicine
* biomolecular archaeology
* herbs
* Middle East
* wine

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