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zoom RSS 有機リン酸系殺虫剤で注意欠陥多動性障害(ADHD)を発症するリスクが高まる/米国

<<   作成日時 : 2010/05/18 20:42   >>

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 有機リン酸系の殺虫剤に曝された子どもは注意欠陥多動性障害(ADHD)を発症するリスクが高いので、生産物を良く洗うようにという。
 子どもの尿中の殺虫剤成分の代謝産物の調査研究により、高値を示す子どもは検出できない子どもの2倍のリスクであった。有機リン酸系化合物はもともとは化学戦争のために開発され、神経系に毒性を持つものである。米国ではマラチオンなど約40種類の有機リン酸塩殺虫剤が登録されている。

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農薬摂取で「子の注意欠陥・多動性障害増える」 米研究
http://www.asahi.com/science/update/0518/TKY201005180194.html
2010年5月18日12時21分
 【ワシントン=勝田敏彦】米ハーバード大などの研究チームが、有機リン系の農薬を低濃度でも摂取した子どもは注意欠陥・多動性障害(ADHD)になりやすいとの研究結果をまとめた。17日発行の米小児学会誌に発表した。
 研究チームは米国の8〜15歳の子ども1139人の尿の成分を分析、親と面接してADHDの診断基準に当てはまるかどうか調べた。
 分析の結果、検出限界ぎりぎりの濃度でも農薬成分の代謝物が尿から見つかった子は、検出されなかった子よりもADHDと診断される可能性が1.93倍になった。
 これまでの研究は、たとえば農村地帯に住む農薬の摂取量が多い人らを対象にしたものだった。チームは論文で「今回のように米国で普通に摂取されているようなレベルでも、農薬成分がADHDの増加につながっている可能性がある」としている。
 農薬成分は農作物に残留したりして子どもの体内に入ったと考えられている。チームのマーク・ワイスコプさんはロイター通信の取材に「野菜や果物は食べる前によく洗ったほうがよい」と話した。
 発達過程にある子どもの脳などは、農薬など神経系に障害を与える可能性がある化学物質に特に弱いと考えられている。農林水産省によると、有機リン系の農薬は日本でも使われている。
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Pesticides tied to ADHD in children in U.S. study
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE64G41R20100517

(Reuters) - Children exposed to pesticides known as organophosphates could have a higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a U.S. study that urges parents to always wash produce thoroughly.

Researchers tracked the pesticides' breakdown products in children' urine and found those with high levels were almost twice as likely to develop ADHD as those with undetectable levels.

The findings are based on data from the general U.S. population, meaning that exposure to the pesticides could be harmful even at levels commonly found in children's environment.

"There is growing concern that these pesticides may be related to ADHD," said researcher Marc Weisskopf of the Harvard School of Public Health, who worked on the study.

"What this paper specifically highlights is that this may be true even at low concentrations."

Organophosphates were originally developed for chemical warfare, and they are known to be toxic to the nervous system.

There are about 40 organophosphate pesticides such as malathion registered in the United States, the researchers wrote in the journal Pediatrics.

Weisskopf said the compounds have been linked to behavioral symptoms common to ADHD -- for instance, impulsivity and attention problems -- but exactly how is not fully understood.

Although the researchers had no way to determine the source of the breakdown products they found, Weisskopf said the most likely culprits were pesticides and insecticides used on produce and indoors.

Garry Hamlin of Dow AgroSciences, which manufactures an organophosphate known as chlorpyrifos, said he had not had time to read the report closely.

But, he added" "the results reported in the paper don't establish any association specific to our product chlorpyrifos."

Weisskopf and colleagues' sample included 1,139 children between 8 and 15 years. They interviewed the children's mothers, or another caretaker, and found that about one in 10 met the criteria for ADHD, which jibes with estimates for the general population.

After accounting for factors such as gender, age and race, they found the odds of having ADHD rose with the level of pesticide breakdown products.

For a 10-fold increase in one class of those compounds, the odds of ADHD increased by more than half. And for the most common breakdown product, called dimethyl triophosphate, the odds of ADHD almost doubled in kids with above-average levels compared to those without detectable levels.

"That's a very strong association that, if true, is of very serious concern," said Weisskopf. "These are widely used pesticides."

He emphasized that more studies are needed, especially following exposure levels over time, before contemplating a ban on the pesticides. Still, he urged parents to be aware of what insecticides they were using around the house and to wash produce.

"A good washing of fruits and vegetables before one eats them would definitely help a lot," he said.

(Reporting by Reuters Health, Editing by Belinda Goldsmith)

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Published online May 17, 2010
PEDIATRICS (doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3058)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides

画像Maryse F. Bouchard, PhDa,b, David C. Bellinger, PhDa,c, Robert O. Wright, MD, MPHa,d,e, Marc G. Weisskopf, PhDa,e,f

Departments of Environmental Health and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts;
bDepartment of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada;
Departments of cNeurology and
dPediatrics, School of Medicine, Harvard University, and Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and
eChanning Laboratory, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Harvard University, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Objective The goal was to examine the association between urinary concentrations of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphates and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 8 to 15 years of age.

Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2000--2004) were available for 1139 children, who were representative of the general US population. A structured interview with a parent was used to ascertain ADHD diagnostic status, on the basis of slightly modified criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition.

Results One hundred nineteen children met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Children with higher urinary dialkyl phosphate concentrations, especially dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) concentrations, were more likely to be diagnosed as having ADHD. A 10-fold increase in DMAP concentration was associated with an odds ratio of 1.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.14--2.10), with adjustment for gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty/income ratio, fasting duration, and urinary creatinine concentration. For the most-commonly detected DMAP metabolite, dimethyl thiophosphate, children with levels higher than the median of detectable concentrations had twice the odds of ADHD (adjusted odds ratio: 1.93 [95% confidence interval: 1.23--3.02]), compared with children with undetectable levels.

Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that organophosphate exposure, at levels common among US children, may contribute to ADHD prevalence. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether this association is causal.

Key Words: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder . pesticides . organophosphates . National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Abbreviations: DAP = dialkyl phosphate . DMAP = dimethyl alkylphosphate . DEAP = diethyl alkylphosphate . OR = odds ratio . CI = confidence interval . ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder . NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey . DISC-IV = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV . PIR = poverty/income ratio . DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition

Accepted Feb 23, 2010.

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ある方から紹介されて訪れました。

もうすでに農薬の空中散布による農薬渦は長野県上田市にて重大な被害を及ぼしており、その空気が滞留しやすい盆地状の地形で行われる有機リン農薬・ネオニコチノイド農薬によるものの影響としてADHDが全国平均の約2倍の11%に達していることが化学物質過敏症の治療で有名な前橋市の青山美子医師によって報告されています。上田市では親のグループが立ち上がって空中散布の禁止を訴えています。


アメリカ環境医学と言うもう一つのアレルギー医学があります。日本では臨床環境医学と言います。アメリカアレルギー学会の議長も務めたこともあるドリス・ラップ医師のHPをお読みになればADHD等の発達障害が食物アレルギーや化学物質過敏症の複合型であることが理解できます。丁度最新記事として貴君と同じ問題を取り上げられています。

http://www.drrapp.com/
うみひこ
2010/05/20 10:30

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有機リン酸系殺虫剤で注意欠陥多動性障害(ADHD)を発症するリスクが高まる/米国 医師の一分/BIGLOBEウェブリブログ
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