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zoom RSS プロトンポンプ阻害剤による副作用 骨折リスクの増加

<<   作成日時 : 2010/05/26 19:58   >>

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画像 胸やけがよくありますか? Nexiumを飲みましょう。
 この小さい紫の錠剤の広告で、昨年63億ドル、米国第2位のベストセラー処方薬となった。市販薬Prilosecも数十億の売上だった。
 しかし研究者は、プロトンポンプ阻害剤と呼ばれるこの薬剤は、ありふれた胸やけの人にむしろ害を及ぼす可能性があると警告する。
 新たな研究により、胃酸の生産を抑制するこれらの薬を毎日服用すると、腸内細菌によって感染の危険度を増大させ、閉経後の女性の骨折の危険度を増大させるという。以前の研究でも肺炎の頻度を増すとされた。
 服用している人の約60-70%は軽い胸やけであり服用すべきでない。単に不要なコストというばかりでなく、不要な副作用をもたらす。
 ピロリ菌の治療やゾリンジャー-エリソン症候群の管理には有用であり、内視鏡で食道に病変のある逆流性食道炎にも必要である。しかし、長期服用には問題がある。毎日服用していると、クロストリジウム-ディフィシルと呼ばれる有害な腸内細菌の感染を74%増加させ、閉経後女性の骨折リスクを25%増加させる。
-----------------------
 広く使用されている胃酸を抑える薬剤の多量服用や長期服用で股関節・手首・脊椎の骨折のリスクが増加するとFDAが警告した。
 プロトンポンプ阻害剤と呼ばれる胸やけ薬の1年以上の長期投与や多量投与で骨折のリスクが増加するという。
(Reuters)
----------------------------------------------------
Heartburn Drugs Pose Risks
12 natural symptom relievers
By Deborah Kotz, U.S. News & World Report
http://health.msn.com/health-topics/digestive-health/heartburn-and-gerd/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100259163

Have frequent heartburn? Take Nexium. An advertising blitz for that little purple pill helped it become the No. 2 best-selling prescription drug in the U.S., with sales of $6.3 billion last year―and let's not forget the billions spent on its over-the-counter cousin, Prilosec. Now, though, researchers are warning that this category of heartburn drugs, called proton pump inhibitors, may do more harm than good, at least for people with garden-variety heartburn. A series of new studies, published Monday in the Archives of Internal Medicine, found that daily use of these drugs, which suppress the production of stomach acid, increases the risk of infection with an intestinal bacteria and increases the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women. Previous research has shown that they also increase the likelihood of contracting pneumonia.

"About 60 to 70 percent of people taking these drugs have mild heartburn and shouldn't be on them," says Mitchell Katz, director of the San Francisco Department of Public Health who wrote an editorial that accompanied the new studies. "It's not just a question of unnecessary costs, but unnecessary side effects." Where PPI's do help, he says, is for the treatment of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, or management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce excess acid. They are also warranted in cases of severe reflux, where an endoscopy reveals damage to the esophagus.

For everyone else, however, "there's no question that these drugs will relieve indigestion and reflux," says Katz, "but, beyond symptom relief, there's no long-term benefit to taking them, while there are some long-term risks." One study found a 74 percent increase in risk of infection with a harmful intestinal bacteria called Clostridium difficile for those taking a daily prescription-strength PPI, while another found a 25 percent increased risk of fractures in postmenopausal women who used PPI's. Both findings were considered to be modest increases in risk―but still enough, says Katz, to encourage folks with mild heartburn to forgo the drugs and double their efforts to make symptom-relieving lifestyle changes such as these:

1. Avoid heartburn-triggering foods. These vary from person to person, but common offenders include orange juice, chocolate, tomato sauce, spicy foods, mint, garlic, and vinegar. Fatty, greasy foods, like cheeseburgers and fries, are also heartburn instigators.

2. Stay upright for a few hours after you eat. Sitting up works with gravity to keep food and stomach acid from flowing up into your esophagus. Better yet, move about a bit to help speed digestion. "Our grandparents had it right when they headed out for a walk after a large meal," he says.

3. But abstain from exercise right after eating. Intense workouts slow digestion, making reflux more likely. Better to exercise first thing in the morning or a few hours after a meal. If you still experience heartburn symptoms after a workout, drink extra water. Staying hydrated helps improve digestion to keep symptoms at bay.

4. Eat smaller meals. To avoid heartburn, aim to eat up to six mini-meals a day, as opposed to three large ones. The worst? Eating a large meal right before bed. Try to abstain from food or drinks within an hour or two of bedtime. Even a tall glass of water before lying down can trigger symptoms in susceptible individuals.

5. Go easy on caffeine and alcohol―and avoid cigarettes. All three can relax the esophageal sphincter muscle, which normally keeps stomach acid from splashing up into the esophagus. Carbonated beverages can also cause this problem.

6. Don't eat too quickly. Try chewing slowly and putting your fork down between bites. Hot soups are a good appetizer because they take longer to consume.

7. Wear looser-fitting clothes. Tight belts, waistbands, and pantyhose constrict the stomach, sometimes triggering reflux.

8. Find ways to relax. Stress may increase stomach acids, raising the likelihood of heartburn.

9. Aim to lose a few extra pounds. The pressure of excess weight―especially around the abdomen―increases the chance that stomach acid will backwash into the esophagus.

10. Try chewing gum. This can boost the production of saliva, which neutralizes stomach acid.

11. Bend with your knees. Bending over at the waist tends to promote heartburn symptoms.

12. Elevate the head of your bed. Place blocks or bricks under your bedposts to raise the head of your bed 6 inches. Elevating your head and chest during sleep helps prevent nighttime reflux. A wedge pillow may also work.

Courtesy of U.S. News & World Report

----------------------------------------------------
FDA says acid reflux drugs carry fracture risk
NEW YORK
Tue May 25, 2010 5:17pm EDT
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE64O6J520100525

NEW YORK (Reuters) - U.S. health regulators have cautioned doctors and patients of an increased risk of fractures of the hip, wrist, and spine from high doses or long-term use of a widely used class of drugs to control the amount of acid in the stomach.

The class of heartburn drugs, called proton pump inhibitors, include prescription brands such as AstraZeneca Plc's top-selling Nexium and the company's Prilosec, an older generic treatment that is also available over the counter at a lower dosage strength.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said on Tuesday that studies suggest a possible increased risk of bone fractures with the use of proton pump inhibitors for one year or longer, or at high doses.

Package insert labels for the drugs will be changed to describe the possible increased fracture risks, the FDA said.

"Because these products are used by a great number of people, it's important for the public to be aware of this possible increased risk," Joyce Korvick, deputy director for safety in the FDA's Division of Gastroenterology Products, said in an agency statement.

"When prescribing proton pump inhibitors, health care professionals should consider whether a lower dose or shorter duration of therapy would adequately treat the patient's condition," Korvick said.

Moreover, the FDA said doctors and patients should weigh whether known benefits of the drugs outweigh potential risks.

Other proton pump inhibitors used to treat heartburn, known formally as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), include generically available Protonix, Johnson & Johnson's prescription Aciphex brand and Novartis AG's over-the-counter Prevacid.

The FDA recommended that consumers report any side effects or other product problems to its MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program at www.fda.gov/MedWatch or by calling 800-332-1088.

----------------------------------------------------
LESS IS MORE
Failing the Acid Test

Benefits of Proton Pump Inhibitors May Not Justify the Risks for Many Users

Mitchell H. Katz, MD

Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(9):747-748.

A staggering 113.4 million prescriptions for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are filled each year, making this class of drugs, at $13.9 billion in sales, the third highest seller in the United States.1 These medications are effective for treatment of erosive and ulcerative esophagitis, Barrett esophagus, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), as well as for short-term treatment of ulcer disease, as part of a combination regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication and for prevention of ulcers due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.2 However, these indications do not account for more than a hundred million prescriptions. So it should come as no surprise that PPIs have been shown to be overprescribed3; between 53% and 69% of PPI prescriptions are for inappropriate indications.2, 4-5

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