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<<   作成日時 : 2011/08/29 20:33   >>

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 ドイツの研究者によれば、探索犬が肺がんの検出に利用できるという。訓練した犬では患者の71%を発見できる。
 科学者は犬がどの化学成分を関知しているのかを知りたいために研究している。
 1989年以来、犬がガンを「嗅ぎつける」とわかり、その後、皮膚、膀胱、腸、乳ガンを見つけられるとわかってきた。腫瘍が犬が感知できる揮発性化学物質を生産していると考えられてきた。

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18 August 2011 Last updated at 00:00 GMT

Sniffer dogs detect lung cancer
By James Gallagher Health reporter, BBC News
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14557224

画像Sniffer dogs can be used to reliably detect lung cancer, according to researchers in Germany.

Writing in the European Respiratory Journal, they found that trained dogs could detect a tumour in 71% of patients.
However, scientists do not know which chemical the dogs are detecting, which is what they say they need to know to develop a screening programme.
Cancer Research UK said that was still a "long way" off.
It was first suggested that dogs could "sniff out" cancer in 1989 and further studies have shown that dogs can detect some cancers such as those of the skin, bladder, bowel and breast.

Cancer Scent
It is thought that tumours produce "volatile chemicals" which a dog can detect.
Researchers trained four dogs - two German shepherds, an Australian shepherd and a Labrador - to detect lung cancer.

Three groups of patients were tested: 110 healthy people, 60 with lung cancer and 50 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a narrowing of the airways of the lungs.
They all breathed into a fleece filled tube, which absorbed any smells.
The dogs sniffed the tubes and sat down in front of those in which they detected lung cancer smells.

They were successful 71% of the time. The researchers showed the dogs were not getting confused by chemicals associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or smoking.
Dr Thorsten Walles, the report's author from Schillerhoehe Hospital, said: "In the breath of patients with lung cancer, there are likely to be different chemicals to normal breath samples and the dogs' keen sense of smell can detect this difference at an early stage of the disease.
"Our results confirm the presence of a stable marker for lung cancer. This is a big step forward."
Dogs are unlikely to become regular fixtures in doctors surgeries so researchers are working on "electronic noses" which would be able to detect the same chemical as the dog. This chemical or combination of smells has not yet been found.
As the researchers lament: "Unfortunately, dogs cannot communicate the biochemistry of the scent of cancer."
Dr Laura McCallum, science information officer at Cancer Research UK, said: "Although there are now some intriguing studies suggesting that dogs may be able to smell cancer in some situations, we're still a long way from understanding exactly which 'smelly molecules' they are detecting and if these studies are accurate.
"Because it would be extremely difficult to use dogs in the clinic, further research is being carried out to learn more about these molecules that are released from tumours and whether devices such as 'electronic noses' could help sniff them out."

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Canine scent detection in the diagnosis of lung cancer: Revisiting a puzzling phenomenon

R. Ehmann*§,
E. Boedeker#§,
U. Friedrich¶,
J. Sagert¶,
J. Dippon+,
G. Friedel# and
T. Walles#?

+ Author Affiliations

*Ambulante Pneumologie, Rotebuehlplatz 19, 70178 Stuttgart, Germany
#Dept of General Thoracic Surgery, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Solitudestrasse 18, 70839 Gerlingen, Germany
¶TeamCanin, An der Burg 1, 79843 Loeffingen, Germany
+Dept of Mathematics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart. Germany
§both authors contributed equally

T. Walles, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Dept of Thoracic Surgery, Solitudestrasse 18, D-70839 Gerlingen, Germany, E-mail: Thorsten.Walles@klinik-schillerhoehe.de
Eur Respir J 2011 erj00517-2011; published ahead of print 2011,
doi:10.1183/09031936.00051711


Abstract

Patient prognosis in lung cancer (LC) largely depends on early diagnosis. Exhaled breath of patients may represent the ideal specimen for future LC screening. However, the clinical applicability of current diagnostic sensor technologies based on signal pattern analysis remains incalculable due to their inability to identify a clear target. To test the robustness of the presence of a so far unknown volatile organic compound in the breath of patients with LC, sniffer dogs were applied.

Exhalation samples of 220 volunteers (healthy individuals, confirmed LC, or COPD) were presented to sniffer dogs following a rigid scientific protocol. Patient history, drug administration and clinicopathological data were analysed to identify potential bias or confounders.

LC was identified with an overall sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 93%. LC detection was independent from COPD and the presence of tobacco smoke and food odors. Logistic regression identified two drugs as potential confounders.

It must be assumed, that a robust and specific volatile organic compound (or pattern) is present in the breath of patients with LC. Additional research efforts are required to overcome the current technical limitations of electronic sensor technologies to engineer a clinically applicable screening tool.


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