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福島の蝶に見られる重度の異常/ヤマトシジミ
 2011年福島の事故後に収集された蝶で、足、触覚と羽根の形状の変異の増加を発見した。室内の実験でも放射性物質と突然変異の関連が示された。
 虫は放射線に非常に強いと信じられてきたが、予想外の結果が出たと琉球大学の大滝譲二教授は言う。
 汚染物質を摂取したことで高い突然変異が出ただけでなく、次世代に変異が受け継がれたことが結論された。
 チェルノブイリと福島の動物や植物に対する放射線の影響を研究しているサウスカロライナ大の生物学者 ティモシー・ムソー教授 は、この研究は福島に住む人や生物にとって非常に重要で驚くべき意味を持っていると説明している。
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低線量被曝の動物への影響
http://kurie.at.webry.info/201202/article_2.html

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13 August 2012 Last updated at 15:17 GMT
'Severe abnormalities' found in Fukushima butterflies
By Nick Crumpton
BBC News
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19245818

画像Exposure to radioactive material released into the environment has caused mutations in butterflies found in Japan, a study suggests.

Scientists found an increase in leg, antennae and wing shape mutations among butterflies collected following the 2011 Fukushima accident.

The link between the mutations and the radioactive material was shown by laboratory experiments, they report.

The work has been published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Two months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011, a team of Japanese researchers collected 144 adult pale grass blue (Zizeeria maha) butterflies from 10 locations in Japan, including the Fukushima area.

When the accident occurred, the adult butterflies would have been overwintering as larvae.

Unexpected results

By comparing mutations found on the butterflies collected from the different sites, the team found that areas with greater amounts of radiation in the environment were home to butterflies with much smaller wings and irregularly developed eyes.

"It has been believed that insects are very resistant to radiation," said lead researcher Joji Otaki from the University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa.

"In that sense, our results were unexpected," he told BBC News.


The Japanese researchers have been studying the species for more than a decade
Prof Otaki's team then bred these butterflies within labs 1,750km (1,090 miles) away from the accident, where artificial radiation could hardly be detected.

It was by breeding these butterflies that they began noticing a suite of abnormalities that hadn't been seen in the previous generation - that collected from Fukushima - such as malformed antennae, which the insects use to explore their environment and seek out mates.

Six months later, they again collected adults from the 10 sites and found that butterflies from the Fukushima area showed a mutation rate more than double that of those found sooner after the accident.

The team concluded that this higher rate of mutation came from eating contaminated food, but also from mutations of the parents' genetic material that was passed on to the next generation, even though these mutations were not evident in the previous generations' adult butterflies.

The team of researchers have been studying that particular species butterfly for more than 10 years.

They were considering using the species as an "environmental indicator" before the Fukushima accident, as previous work had shown it is very sensitive to environmental changes.

"We had reported the real-time field evolution of colour patterns of this butterfly in response to global warming before, and [because] this butterfly is found in artificial environments - such as gardens and public parks - this butterfly can monitor human environments," Prof Otaki said.

The variations in colouration of the butterfly were previously reported by Prof Otaki and his colleagues in the open access journal BMC Evolutionary Biology, as he told BBC News.

"Colour-pattern changes of this butterfly in Aomori, Japan was [previously] observed only in the recent northern range margins during a limited period of time. Most importantly, the range-margin population did not show any 'abnormality' per se," he clarified.

The findings from their new research show that the radionuclides released from the accident had led to novel, severely abnormal development, and that the mutations to the butterflies' genetic material was still affecting the insects, even after the residual radiation in the environment had decayed away.

"This study is important and overwhelming in its implications for both the human and biological communities living in Fukushima," explained University of South Carolina biologist Tim Mousseau, who studies the impacts of radiation on animals and plants in Chernobyl and Fukushima, but was not involved in this research.

"These observations of mutations and morphological abnormalities can only be explained as having resulted from exposure to radioactive contaminants," Dr Mousseau told BBC News.

The findings from the Japanese team are consistent with previous studies that have indicated birds and butterflies are important tools to investigate the long-term impacts of radioactive contaminants in the environment.

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Des papillons modifies genetiquement par les radiations de Fukushima
Le Monde.fr avec AFP | 14.08.2012 a 10h37 ? Mis a jour le 14.08.2012 a 11h41

http://www.lemonde.fr/japon/article/2012/08/14/des-papillons-modifies-genetiquement-par-les-radiations-de-fukushima_1745872_1492975.html

Des papillons vivant aux alentours de la centrale de Fukushima ont souffert de mutations genetiques sur trois generations a cause de la radioactivite, ont decouvert des chercheurs japonais. Environ 12 % de petits papillons bleus de la famille des lycenides exposes a la radioactivite a l'etat de larves lors de la catastrophe nucleaire de mars 2011 ont developpe des anomalies, notamment des ailes plus petites et une malformation des yeux, ont explique des chercheurs.
Ces insectes, attrapes non loin de la centrale accidentee Fukushima Daiichi en mai, soit deux mois apres l'accident, ont ensuite ete eleves en laboratoires a des fins de reproduction. Quelque 18 % de la generation suivante a developpe des problemes similaires, a souligne Joji Otaki, professeur a l'universite Ryukyu d'Okinawa (sud), interroge par l'AFP.

La proportion a encore grimpe (a 34 %) pour la troisieme generation, alors que les scientifiques avaient pris soin de choisir un papillon sain d'une autre region pour l'accoupler avec un papillon de Fukushima. Six mois apres le desastre, un nouveau lot de papillons a ete attrape pres de Fukushima Daiichi et, cette fois, le taux d'anomalie de la generation suivante a ete mesure a 52 %, a precise M. Otaki.

DES ETUDES A VENIR SUR D'AUTRES ANIMAUX

Les scientifiques ont aussi realise une experience test sur une population de papillons non affectes. Ils les ont exposes en laboratoire a de faibles doses de radioactivite et ont constate la meme proportion d'anomalies que chez la premiere generation de papillons de Fukushima. Les resultats de cette etude ont ete publies dans Scientific Reports, un journal sur Internet diffuse par l'editeur du magazine Nature.

"Nous en avons tire la conclusion claire que les radiations degagees par la centrale Fukushima Daiichi avaient endommage les genes des papillons", a souligne M. Otaki. Il a toutefois prevenu que ces resultats devaient etre pris avec precaution, precisant que l'effet observe n'etait avere a l'heure actuelle que sur les papillons et sur aucune autre espece animale ni sur l'homme.
Son equipe va mener de nouvelles experiences sur d'autres animaux.

Aucune personne n'est morte directement du fait des radiations provoquees par l'accident de Fukushima, mais les habitants de la region et les travailleurs qui interviennent sur la centrale endommagee redoutent toujours des effets a long terme. Des associations affirment que des effets de la radioactivite se sont transmis sur plusieurs generations a Hiroshima et Nagasaki (sud-ouest), apres le lancement de bombes atomiques par les Etats-Unis en aout 1945 a la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale

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The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

Atsuki Hiyama, Chiyo Nohara, Seira Kinjo, Wataru Taira, Shinichi Gima, Akira Tanahara & Joji M. Otaki

Scientific Reports 2, Article number: 570 doi:10.1038/srep00570
Received 06 June 2012 Accepted 24 July 2012 Published 09 August 2012

The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relatively mild abnormalities. The F1 offspring from the first-voltine females showed more severe abnormalities, which were inherited by the F2 generation. Adult butterflies collected in September 2011 showed more severe abnormalities than those collected in May. Similar abnormalities were experimentally reproduced in individuals from a non-contaminated area by external and internal low-dose exposures. We conclude that artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant caused physiological and genetic damage to this species.

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